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Table of Contents
Vol. 186, No. 1, 2007
Issue release date: July 2007
Section title: Paper
Cells Tissues Organs 2007;186:7–24
(DOI:10.1159/000102678)

Gene Duplication and the Evolution of Vertebrate Skeletal Mineralization

Kawasaki K. · Buchanan A.V. · Weiss K.M.
Department of Anthropology, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pa., USA

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Article / Publication Details

First-Page Preview
Abstract of Paper

Received: 12/14/2006
Accepted: 12/18/2006
Published online: 7/6/2007

Number of Print Pages: 18
Number of Figures: 5
Number of Tables: 1

ISSN: 1422-6405 (Print)
eISSN: 1422-6421 (Online)

For additional information: http://www.karger.com/CTO

Abstract

The mineralized skeleton is a critical innovation that evolved early in vertebrate history. The tissues found in dermal skeletons of ancient vertebrates are similar to the dental tissues of modern vertebrates; both consist of a highly mineralized surface hard tissue, enamel or enameloid, more resilient body dentin, and basal bone. Many proteins regulating mineralization of these tissues are evolutionarily related and form the secretory calcium-binding phosphoprotein (SCPP) family. We hypothesize here the duplication histories of SCPP genes and their common ancestors, SPARC and SPARCL1. At around the same time that Paleozoic jawless vertebrates first evolved mineralized skeleton, SPARCL1 arose from SPARC by whole genome duplication. Then both before and after the split of ray-finned fish and lobe-finned fish, tandem gene duplication created two types of SCPP genes, each residing on the opposite side of SPARCL1. One type was subsequently used in surface tissue and the other in body tissue. In tetrapods, these two types of SCPP genes were separated by intrachromosomal rearrangement. While new SCPP genes arose by duplication, some old genes were eliminated from the genome. As a consequence, phenogenetic drift occurred: while mineralized skeleton is maintained by natural selection, the underlying genetic basis has changed.


  

Author Contacts

Dr. Kazuhiko Kawasaki
Department of Anthropology, Pennsylvania State University
409 Carpenter Building
University Park, PA 16802 (USA)
Tel. +1 814 863 2977, Fax +1 814 863 1474, E-Mail kuk2@psu.edu

  

Article Information

Number of Print Pages : 18
Number of Figures : 5, Number of Tables : 1, Number of References : 138

  

Publication Details

Cells Tissues Organs (in vivo, in vitro)

Vol. 186, No. 1, Year 2007 (Cover Date: July 2007)

Journal Editor: Denker, H.-W. (Essen)
ISSN: 1422–6405 (print), 1422–6421 (Online)

For additional information: http://www.karger.com/CTO


Article / Publication Details

First-Page Preview
Abstract of Paper

Received: 12/14/2006
Accepted: 12/18/2006
Published online: 7/6/2007

Number of Print Pages: 18
Number of Figures: 5
Number of Tables: 1

ISSN: 1422-6405 (Print)
eISSN: 1422-6421 (Online)

For additional information: http://www.karger.com/CTO


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Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in goverment regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug.
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