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Table of Contents
Vol. 92, No. 4, 2007
Issue release date: November 2007
Section title: Original Paper
Neonatology 2007;92:269–278
(DOI:10.1159/000105493)

Erythropoietin Attenuates Lipopolysaccharide-Induced White Matter Injury in the Neonatal Rat Brain

Kumral A. · Baskin H. · Yesilirmak D.C. · Ergur B.U. · Aykan S. · Genc S. · Genc K. · Yilmaz O. · Tugyan K. · Giray O. · Duman N. · Ozkan H.
Dokuz Eylul University, School of Medicine, Inciralti, Izmir, Turkey

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Article / Publication Details

First-Page Preview
Abstract of Original Paper

Received: January 01, 2007
Accepted: March 19, 2007
Published online: July 11, 2007
Issue release date: November 2007

Number of Print Pages: 10
Number of Figures: 1
Number of Tables: 2

ISSN: 1661-7800 (Print)
eISSN: 1661-7819 (Online)

For additional information: http://www.karger.com/NEO

Abstract

Periventricular leukomalacia (PVL), a common neonatal brain white matter (WM) lesion, is frequently associated with cerebral palsy. Growing evidence has indicated that in addition to ischemia/reperfusion injury, cytokine-induced brain injury associated with maternal or fetal infection may also play an important role in the pathogenesis of PVL. Recent studies have shown that administration of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) to pregnant rats causes enhanced expression of the cytokines, i.e., IL-1β, TNF-α, and IL-6, in fetal brains. In recent years, it has been shown that erythropoietin (EPO) has a critical role in the development, maintenance, protection and repair of the nervous system. In the present study we investigated the effect of EPO on LPS-induced WM injury in Sprague-Dawley rats. LPS (500 µg/kg) suspension in pyrogen-free saline was administered intraperitoneally to pregnant rats at 18 and 19 days of gestation. The control group was treated with pyrogen-free saline. They were given 5,000 U/kg recombinant human EPO. Seven-day-old Sprague-Dawley rat pups were divided into four groups: control group, LPS-treated group, prenatal maternal EPO-treated group (5,000 U/kg, intraperitoneally given to pregnant rats at 18 and 19 days of gestation), and postnatal EPO-treated group (5,000 U/kg, intraperitoneally given to 1-day-old rat pups). Cytokine induction in the postnatal 7-day-old (P7) rat brain after maternal administration of LPS was determined by the ELISA method. The proinflammatory cytokine levels (IL-1β, TNF-α, and IL-6) in P7 rat pup brains were significantly increased in the LPS-treated group as compared with the control group. Prenatal maternal EPO treatment significantly reduced the concentration of TNF-α and IL-6 in the newborn rat brain following LPS injection. The concentration of IL-1β was decreased in the intrauterine EPO treatment group. Postnatal EPO treatment significantly decreased only the IL-6 concentration in the newborn rat brain following LPS injection. The concentration of cytokines, IL-1β and TNF-α, was reduced in the postnatal EPO treatment group. We demonstrated here that LPS administration in pregnant rats at gestational day 18 and 19 induced WM injury in P7 progeny characterized by apoptosis. Prenatal maternal and postnatal EPO treatment significantly reduced the number of apoptotic cells in the periventricular WM. Using immunohistochemistry techniques, we investigated the effects of maternal administration of LPS on myelin basic protein (MBP) staining, as a marker of myelination in the periventricular area in the neonatal rat brain. MBP staining was significantly less and weaker in the brains of the LPS-treated group as compared with the prenatal maternal EPO-treated group. However, the postnatal EPO treatment did not prevent LPS-stimulated loss of MBP-positive staining. In conclusion, especially prenatal maternal EPO treatment attenuates LPS-induced injury by reducing the expression of inflammatory cytokines and sparing MBP in the neonatal rat brain. While the postnatal EPO treatment prevented LPS-induced brain injury this effect was partial. To our knowledge, this is the first study that demonstrates a protective effect of EPO on LPS-induced WM injury in the developing brain. Regarding the wide use of EPO in premature newborns, this agent may be potentially beneficial in treating LPS-induced brain injury in the perinatal period.

© 2007 S. Karger AG, Basel


Article / Publication Details

First-Page Preview
Abstract of Original Paper

Received: January 01, 2007
Accepted: March 19, 2007
Published online: July 11, 2007
Issue release date: November 2007

Number of Print Pages: 10
Number of Figures: 1
Number of Tables: 2

ISSN: 1661-7800 (Print)
eISSN: 1661-7819 (Online)

For additional information: http://www.karger.com/NEO


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Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher or, in the case of photocopying, direct payment of a specified fee to the Copyright Clearance Center.
Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug.
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