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Table of Contents
Vol. 4, No. 6, 2007
Issue release date: October 2007
Section title: Clinical Drug Trial Section
Free Access
Neurodegenerative Dis 2007;4:443–486
(DOI:10.1159/000107705)

List of Drugs in Development for Neurodegenerative Diseases

Update June 2007

Pogačić V. · Herrling P.
Corporate Research, Novartis International AG, Basel, Switzerland

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Abstract

Background/Aims: Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is characterized by extracellular Aβ peptide deposition originating from amyloid precursor protein cleavage and intracellular neurofibrillary tangles resulting from pathological tau protein aggregation. These processes are accompanied by dramatic neuronal losses, further leading to different cognitive impairments. Neuronal death signalings involve gene expression modifications that rely on transcription factor alterations. Herein, we investigated the fate of the Sp family of transcription factors in postmortem brains from patients with AD disease and in different contexts of neuronal death. Methods/Results: By immunohistochemistry we found that the Sp3 and Sp4 levels were dramatically increased and associated with neurofibrillary tangles and pathological tau presence in neurons from the CA1 region of the hippocampus, as well as the entorhinal cortex of AD patient brains. The Sp transcription factor expression levels were further analyzed in cortical neurons in which death is induced by amyloid precursor protein signaling targeting. While the Sp1 levels remained constant, the Sp4 levels were slightly upregulated in response to the death signal. The Sp3 isoforms were rather degraded. Interestingly, when overexpressed by transfection experiments, the three Sp family members induced neuronal apoptosis, Sp3 and Sp4 being the most potent proapoptotic factors over Sp1. Conclusion: Our data evidence Sp3 and Sp4 as new hallmarks of AD in postmortem human brains and further point out that Sp proteins are potential triggers of neuronal death signaling cascades.


  

Author Contacts

Prof. Paul Herrling
Novartis International AG
Postfach
CH–4002 Basel (Switzerland)
Tel. +41 61 324 7735, Fax +41 61 324 2141, E-Mail Paul.Herrling@group.novartis.com

  

Article Information

Number of Print Pages : 44

  

Publication Details

Neurodegenerative Diseases

Vol. 4, No. 6, Year 2007 (Cover Date: October 2007)

Journal Editor: Nitsch, R.M. (Zürich)
ISSN: 1660–2854 (print), 1660–2862 (Online)

For additional information: http://www.karger.com/NDD


Article / Publication Details

First-Page Preview
Abstract of Clinical Drug Trial Section

Published online: 10/9/2007
Issue release date: October 2007

Number of Print Pages: 44
Number of Figures: 0
Number of Tables: 0

ISSN: 1660-2854 (Print)
eISSN: 1660-2862 (Online)

For additional information: http://www.karger.com/NDD


Copyright / Drug Dosage

Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher or, in the case of photocopying, direct payment of a specified fee to the Copyright Clearance Center.
Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in goverment regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug.
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