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Cerebellar Granule Cell Migration and the Effects of AlcoholJiang Y.a · Kumada T.a · Cameron D.B.a · Komuro H.a, b
aDepartment of Neurosciences, Lerner Research Institute, Cleveland Clinic Foundation, and bDepartment of Molecular Medicine, Cleveland Clinic Lerner College of Medicine of Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, Ohio, USA Corresponding Author
Dr. Hitoshi Komuro
Department of Neurosciences/NC30, Lerner Research Institute
The Cleveland Clinic Foundation, 9500 Euclid Avenue
Cleveland, OH 44195 (USA)
Tel. +1 216 444 4497, Fax +1 216 444 7927, E-Mail firstname.lastname@example.org
In the developing brain the majority of neurons migrate from their birthplace to their final destination. This active movement is essential for the formation of cortical layers and nuclei. The impairment of migration does not affect the viability of neurons but often results in abnormal differentiation. The proper migration of neurons requires the orchestrated activities of multiple cellular and molecular events, such as pathway selection, the activation of specific receptors and channels, and the assembly and disassembly of cytoskeletal components. The migration of neurons is very vulnerable to exposure to environmental toxins, such as alcohol. In this article, we will focus on recent developments in the migration of cerebellar granule cells. First, we will describe when, where and how granule cells migrate through different cortical layers to reach their final destination. Second, we will present how internal programs control the sequential changes in granule cell migration. Third, we will review the roles of external guidance cues and transmembrane signals in granule cell migration. Finally, we will reveal mechanisms by which alcohol exposure impairs granule cell migration.
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