High chromosomal polymorphism and heterozygosity in Cyclocephala tridentata from Guadeloupe: chromosome comparison with some other species of Dynastinae (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae)Dutrillaux A.M. · Xie H. · Dutrillaux B.
UMR 5202 CNRS/MNHN, Structure et Evolution de la Biodiversité, Muséum National d’Histoire Naturelle, Paris (France)
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Very distinct karyotypes have been observed in two Cyclocephala species from Guadeloupe, considered as very close and possibly vicariant: C. insulicola with only metacentric and C. tridentata tridentata with many acrocentric autosomes. This prompted us to study the karyotype of a few other neotropical Dynastinae belonging to four of the eight existing tribes, to find out which one of these two species had the most divergent chromosomes from their ancestral condition. In the four additional species studied, i.e., Cyclocephalamaffafa, Strategus syphax, Ligyrus cuniculus and Megasoma actaeon, a karyotype composed of 20 chromosomes, including 18 meta- or submetacentric autosomes was found, as it was in C. insulicola. Thus, the karyotype of C. t. tridentata, in which most of the 18 autosomes were acrocentric, is apomorphic. In addition, it was highly polymorphic, with six different karyotypes observed among the ten specimens studied. All had one to four heterozygous chromosome pairs formed by one acrocentric and one submetacentric carrying a large juxta-centromeric heterochromatic component. This heterozygosity did not seem to impair either meiotic synapsis or chiasma formation and chromosome segregation. Such high rates of chromosome heterozygosity and polymorphism are infrequent and never described in beetles. This suggests that C. t. tridentata undergoes an active process of chromosome evolution. A possible relationship with insularity and/or pesticide exposure is briefly discussed.
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