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Cover

The Window of Opportunity: Pre-Pregnancy to 24 Months of Age

61st Nestlé Nutrition Workshop, Pediatric Program, Bali, April 2007

Editor(s): Barker D.J.P. (Southampton) 
Bergmann R.L. (Berlin) 
Ogra P.L. (Buffalo, N.Y.) 
Table of Contents
Vol. 61, No. , 2008
Section title: Paper
Barker, D.J.P. (Southampton) (eds): The Window of Opportunity: Pre-Pregnancy to 24 Months of Age. . Basel, Karger, 2008, vol 61, pp 53-68
(DOI:10.1159/000113170)

Growth and Bone Development

Cooper C. · Harvey N. · Javaid K. · Hanson M. · Dennison E.
MRC Epidemiology Resource Centre and Centre for Developmental Origins of Health and Adult Disease, University of Southampton, Southampton General Hospital, Southampton, UK

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Article / Publication Details

First-Page Preview
Abstract of Paper

Published online: January 11, 2008
Cover Date: 2008

Number of Print Pages: 16
Number of Figures: 0
Number of Tables: 0

ISBN: 978-3-8055-8387-9 (Print)
eISBN: 978-3-8055-8388-6 (Online)

Abstract

Osteoporosis is a major cause of morbidity and mortality through its association with age-related fractures. Although most effort in fracture prevention has been directed at retarding the rate of age-related bone loss, and reducing the frequency and severity of trauma among elderly people, evidence is growing that peak bone mass is an important contributor to bone strength during later life. The normal patterns of skeletal growth have been well characterized in cross-sectional and longitudinal studies. It has been confirmed that boys have higher bone mineral content, but not volumetric bone density, than girls. Furthermore, there is a dissociation between the peak velocities for height gain and bone mineral accrual, in both genders. Puberty is the period during which volumetric density appears to increase in both axial and appendicular sites. Many factors influence the accumulation of bone mineral during childhood and adolescence, including heredity, gender, diet, physical activity, endocrine status, and sporadic risk factors such as cigarette smoking. In addition to these modifiable factors during childhood, evidence has also accrued that fracture risk might be programmed during intrauterine life. Epidemiological studies have demonstrated a relationship between birthweight, weight in infancy, and adult bone mass. This appears to be mediated through modulation of the set-point for basal activity of pituitary-dependent endocrine systems such as the hypothalamicpituitary- adrenal and growth hormone/insulin-like growth factor-1 axes. Maternal smoking, diet (particularly vitamin D deficiency), and physical activity also appear to modulate bone mineral acquisition during intrauterine life; furthermore, both low birth size and poor childhood growth are directly linked to the later risk of hip fracture. The optimization of maternal nutrition and intrauterine growth should also be included within preventive strategies against osteoporotic fracture, albeit for future generations.


Article / Publication Details

First-Page Preview
Abstract of Paper

Published online: January 11, 2008
Cover Date: 2008

Number of Print Pages: 16
Number of Figures: 0
Number of Tables: 0

ISBN: 978-3-8055-8387-9 (Print)
eISBN: 978-3-8055-8388-6 (Online)


Copyright / Drug Dosage / Disclaimer

Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher or, in the case of photocopying, direct payment of a specified fee to the Copyright Clearance Center.
Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug.
Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.