The relation of circulating sex hormones and cognitive abilities was investigated in 114 healthy !Kung San men (‘bushmen’) of Namibia/Southern Africa who lived mainly as traditional hunter-gatherers. Blood and saliva samples were analysed by use of radioimmunoassays in order to determine the serum concentrations of total testosterone (Tser
), 5α-dihydrotestosterone (DHT), and estradiol (E2
), as well as the level of bioavailable, non-SHBG-bound ‘free’ testosterone in the saliva. The cognitive ability was assessed with two verbal (verbal fluency) and three nonverbal tests (tactual-spatial functioning, field independence/field dependence). As to be expected from previous research on Western samples, all three androgens but not E2
are of significance to the !Kung San men’s cognitive performance. Tser
exhibits a positive relation to tactual-spatial abilities and to the degree of lateralization of this task; on the other hand, Tser
is negatively correlated with verbal fluency. Testosterone in the saliva is also significantly positively correlated to tactual-spatial test scores and, in addition, to field independence. DHT and the ratio DHT/Tser
are positively related to verbal fluency and negatively to the degree of lateralization of tactual-spatial performance.
K. Christiansen, Institute of Human Biology, University of Hamburg, Allende-Platz 2, D-W-2000 Hamburg 13 (FRG)
Published online: February 22, 2008
Number of Print Pages : 11
Neuropsychobiology (International Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research in Biological Psychiatry, Pharmacopsychiatry, Biological Psychology/Pharmacopsychology and Pharmacoelectroencephalography)
Vol. 27, No. 2, Year 1993 (Cover Date: 1993)
Journal Editor: Strik W. (Bern)
ISSN: 0302–282X (Print), eISSN: 1423–0224 (Online)
For additional information: http://www.karger.com/NPS
Copyright / Drug Dosage
Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher or, in the case of photocopying, direct payment of a specified fee to the Copyright Clearance Center.
Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in goverment regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug.
Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.