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Trends in Innate Immunity

Editor(s): Egesten A. (Lund) 
Schmidt A. (Witten) 
Herwald H. (Lund) 
Table of Contents
Vol. 15, No. , 2008
Section title: Paper
Free Access
Egesten A, Schmidt A, Herwald H (eds): Trends in Innate Immunity. Contrib Microbiol. Basel, Karger, 2008, vol 15, pp 164-187

Oxidative Innate Immune Defenses by Nox/Duox Family NADPH Oxidases

Rada B. · Leto T.
Molecular Defense Section, Laboratory of Host Defenses, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Rockville, Md., USA

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The importance of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in innate immunity was first recognized in professional phagocytes undergoing a ‘respiratory burst’upon activation. This robust oxygen consumption is related to a superoxide-generating enzyme, the phagocytic NADPH oxidase (Nox2-based or phox). The oxidase is essential for microbial killing, since patients lacking a functional oxidase suffer from enhanced susceptibility to microbial infections. ROS derived from superoxide attack bacteria in the isolated niche of the neutrophil phagosome. The oxidase is electrogenic, alters ion currents across membranes, induces apoptosis, regulates cytokine production, influences gene expression, and promotes formation of extracellular traps. Recently, new homologues of Nox2 were discovered establishing the Nox family of NADPH oxidases that encompasses seven members. Nox1 is highly expressed in the colon epithelium, and can be induced by LPS or IFN- . Nox4 was implicated in innate immunity since LPS induces Nox4-dependent ROS generation. Duox1 and Duox2 localize to the apical plasma membrane of epithelial cells in major airways, salivary glands, and the gastrointestinal tract, and provide extracellular hydrogen peroxide to lactoperoxidase to produce antimicrobial hypothiocyanite ions. Th1 and Th2 cytokines regulate expression of dual oxidases in human airways and may thereby act in host defense or in proinflammatory responses.

Article / Publication Details

First-Page Preview
Abstract of Paper

Published online: May 28, 2008
Cover Date: 2008

Number of Print Pages: 24
Number of Figures: 0
Number of Tables: 0

ISBN: 978-3-8055-8548-4 (Print)
eISBN: 978-3-8055-8549-1 (Online)

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