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Table of Contents
Vol. 15, No. 2, 2008
Issue release date: August 2008
Section title: Review
Neuroimmunomodulation 2008;15:93–101
(DOI:10.1159/000148191)

Immunomodulation by Melatonin: Its Significance for Seasonally Occurring Diseases

Srinivasan V.a · Spence D.W.b · Trakht I.c · Pandi-Perumal S.R.d · Cardinali D.P.e · Maestroni G.J.f
aDepartment of Physiology, School of Medical Sciences, University Sains Malaysia, Kubang Kerian, Malaysia; bCenter for Addiction and Mental Health, and cSleep and Neuropsychiatry Institute, Toronto, Ont., Canada; dDivision of Clinical Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, Department of Medicine, College of Physicians and Surgeons of Columbia University, New York, N.Y., USA; eDepartamento de Fisiología, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Buenos Aires, Argentina; fCenter for Experimental Pathology, Cantonal Institute of Pathology, Locarno, Switzerland

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Article / Publication Details

First-Page Preview
Abstract of Review

Received: February 01, 2008
Accepted: March 05, 2008
Published online: August 05, 2008
Issue release date: August 2008

Number of Print Pages: 9
Number of Figures: 0
Number of Tables: 0

ISSN: 1021-7401 (Print)
eISSN: 1423-0216 (Online)

For additional information: http://www.karger.com/NIM

Abstract

Melatonin is not only synthesized by the pineal gland but also in many other organs and tissues of the body, particularly by lymphoid organs such as the bone marrow, thymus and lymphocytes. Melatonin participates in various functions of the body, among which its immunomodulatory role has assumed considerable significance in recent years. Melatonin has been shown to be involved in the regulation of both cellular and humoral immunity. Melatonin not only stimulates the production of natural killer cells, monocytes and leukocytes, but also alters the balance of T helper (Th)-1 and Th-2 cells mainly towards Th-1 responses and increases the production of relevant cytokines such as interleukin (IL)-2, IL-6, IL-12 and interferon-γ. The regulatory function of melatonin on immune mechanisms is seasonally dependent. This fact may in part account for the cyclic pattern of symptom expression shown by certain infectious diseases, which become more pronounced at particular times of the year. Moreover, melatonin-induced seasonal changes in immune function have also been implicated in the pathogenesis of seasonal affective disorder and rheumatoid arthritis. The clinical significance of the seasonally changing immunomodulatory role of melatonin is discussed in this review.

© 2008 S. Karger AG, Basel


Article / Publication Details

First-Page Preview
Abstract of Review

Received: February 01, 2008
Accepted: March 05, 2008
Published online: August 05, 2008
Issue release date: August 2008

Number of Print Pages: 9
Number of Figures: 0
Number of Tables: 0

ISSN: 1021-7401 (Print)
eISSN: 1423-0216 (Online)

For additional information: http://www.karger.com/NIM


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Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug.
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