Login to MyKarger

New to MyKarger? Click here to sign up.

Login with Facebook

Forgot Password? Reset your password

Authors, Editors, Reviewers

For Manuscript Submission, Check or Review Login please go to Submission Websites List.

Submission Websites List

Institutional Login (Shibboleth)

For the academic login, please select your country in the dropdown list. You will be redirected to verify your credentials.

Table of Contents
Vol. 67, No. 1, 2009
Issue release date: January 2009
Section title: Review
Gynecol Obstet Invest 2009;67:1–8
(DOI:10.1159/000150597)

Combined Effects of Cigarette Smoking and Alcohol Consumption on Perinatal Outcome

Odendaal H.J.a · Steyn D.W.a · Elliott A.b · Burd L.c
aDepartment of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Stellenbosch University, Tygerberg, South Africa; bSanford Research/USD, Sioux Falls, S. Dak., and cNorth Dakota Fetal Alcohol Syndrome Center, Department of Pediatrics, University of North Dakota School of Medicine and Health Sciences, Grand Forks, N. Dak., USA

Do you have an account?

Login Information





Contact Information










I have read the Karger Terms and Conditions and agree.



Login Information





Contact Information










I have read the Karger Terms and Conditions and agree.



To view the fulltext, please log in

To view the pdf, please log in

Buy

  • FullText & PDF
  • Unlimited re-access via MyKarger
  • Unrestricted printing, no saving restrictions for personal use
read more

CHF 38.00 *
EUR 35.00 *
USD 39.00 *

Select

KAB

Buy a Karger Article Bundle (KAB) and profit from a discount!

If you would like to redeem your KAB credit, please log in.


Save over 20% compared to the individual article price.
Learn more

Rent/Cloud

  • Rent for 48h to view
  • Buy Cloud Access for unlimited viewing via different devices
  • Synchronizing in the ReadCube Cloud
  • Printing and saving restrictions apply

Rental: USD 8.50
Cloud: USD 20.00


Select

Subscribe

  • Access to all articles of the subscribed year(s) guaranteed for 5 years
  • Unlimited re-access via Subscriber Login or MyKarger
  • Unrestricted printing, no saving restrictions for personal use
read more

Subcription rates


Select

* The final prices may differ from the prices shown due to specifics of VAT rules.

Article / Publication Details

First-Page Preview
Abstract of Review

Received: November 27, 2007
Accepted: May 24, 2008
Published online: August 06, 2008
Issue release date: January 2009

Number of Print Pages: 8
Number of Figures: 1
Number of Tables: 1

ISSN: 0378-7346 (Print)
eISSN: 1423-002X (Online)

For additional information: http://www.karger.com/GOI

Abstract

Background: An increase in various congenital abnormalities associated with cigarette smoking and the use of alcohol during pregnancy has been reported in many studies. These exposures also increase the risk of pregnancy complications such as abruptio placentae, unexplained stillbirth, preterm labor and intrauterine growth restriction. However, very few studies have addressed the combined effect of smoking and drinking on pregnancy outcomes. Methods: In this review, the adverse effects of smoking or drinking on pregnancy were obtained from publications in which both substances were addressed in the same study population. A special effort was made to find studies in which the combined effect of these substances was investigated. Results: Preterm labor occurred more frequently in women who drank and smoked during pregnancy. This increased odds ratio was more than the sum of the effects of either smoking or drinking, indicating that the use of both substances by the same woman has a synergistic effect that increases the risk of preterm labor. This synergistic effect was also found for low birth weight and growth restriction. Conclusions: As most of the women who drink during pregnancy also smoke cigarettes, attention should be given to the prevention or reduced use of both substances during pregnancy.

© 2008 S. Karger AG, Basel


Article / Publication Details

First-Page Preview
Abstract of Review

Received: November 27, 2007
Accepted: May 24, 2008
Published online: August 06, 2008
Issue release date: January 2009

Number of Print Pages: 8
Number of Figures: 1
Number of Tables: 1

ISSN: 0378-7346 (Print)
eISSN: 1423-002X (Online)

For additional information: http://www.karger.com/GOI


Copyright / Drug Dosage / Disclaimer

Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher or, in the case of photocopying, direct payment of a specified fee to the Copyright Clearance Center.
Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug.
Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.