What Constitutes a True Hyperdense Middle Cerebral Artery Sign?Koo C.K.a · Teasdale E.a · Muir K.W.b
Departments of aNeuroradiology and bNeurology, Institute of Neurological Sciences, Southern General Hospital, Glasgow, UK
Do you have an account?
- Rent for 48h to view
- Buy Cloud Access for unlimited viewing via different devices
- Synchronizing in the ReadCube Cloud
- Printing and saving restrictions apply
Rental: USD 8.50
Cloud: USD 20.00
Objectives: The ‘hyperdense MCA sign’ refers to an appearance of increased attenuation of the proximal middle cerebral artery (MCA) that is often associated with thrombosis of the M1 MCA segment and may be the only diagnostic feature on computed tomography early after ischaemic stroke. False positives are recognized, and correct recognition of this sign has, therefore, assumed greater importance with the advent of thrombolytic therapy for stroke. We sought to define objective criteria for hyperdensity of the MCA. Methods: Brain computed tomographs obtained by a standard protocol in a neuroradiology department were analyzed by a single observer. All consecutive scans reported as exhibiting a hyperdense MCA were compared to controls reported as having normal scans. Ovoid regions of interest were placed over the vessels and cerebral cortices, and the attenuation in Hounsfield units (HU) measured. Absolute attenuation and ratios of one side to the other were compared. Results: MCA attenuation was unrelated to age in cases (n = 18) and controls (n = 80). The mean MCA attenuation was greater in the affected MCA of cases as compared with controls [54.0 HU (99% confidence interval CI 46.7–61.2) vs. 41.3 HU (99% CI 39.7–43.0); p < 0.00001]. Cases were subdivided into true and false positives by the ratio of denser:less dense MCA (within or without the 95% prediction interval for controls). In all true positives, the MCA ratio was > 1.2. 9 of 10 true positives had acute ischaemic stroke; 1 patient had herpes simplex encephalitis, but had MCA attenuation within the 95% CI for controls. False positives had mature cerebral infarction or non-ischaemic pathologies. The ratio of MCA attenuation to adjacent cerebral cortex was significantly higher in both true and false positives than in controls. Conclusions: Hyperdense MCAs associated with acute ischaemic stroke can be distinguished from normal vessels and false positives by measurement of absolute attenuation of affected and normal vessels: an absolute density of >43 HU and a MCA ratio of >1.2 defined hyperdensity and excluded all other pathologies. Confirmation in other centres is required.
© 2000 S. Karger AG, Basel
Article / Publication Details
Copyright / Drug Dosage / DisclaimerCopyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher or, in the case of photocopying, direct payment of a specified fee to the Copyright Clearance Center.
Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug.
Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.