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Predictors of Plasmodium vivax Malaria-Induced Nephropathy in Young Korean MenChung B.H. · Lee S.W. · Lee S.E. · Hwang T.J. · Shin H.S.
Department of Internal Medicine, The Armed Forces Yangju Hospital, Yangju City, Gyeonggi Province, Republic of Korea
Background:Plasmodium vivax malaria accounts for more than half of all malaria cases in Asia and Latin America. Despite the high prevalence of disease caused by this parasite, research into its effects (especially its renal effect) has lagged disproportionately. To investigate predictors of vivax malaria-induced nephropathy, we analyzed the cases of vivax malaria-induced nephropathy in young Korean men. Methods: This was a retrospective analysis of P. vivax patients with acute nephropathy (all males, n = 75), defined by an absolute increase in serum creatinine of 0.3 mg/dl or more (equal to an estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) <80 ml/min) (group 1, n = 31) or proteinuria (group 2, n = 44), between January 2004 and December 2007. The eGFR was calculated using a simplified Modification of Renal Disease (MDRD) equation. None of the patients had a history of traveling abroad, drug abuse or blood transfusion. The clinical manifestations, laboratory abnormalities and predictors of nephropathy were reviewed. Results: Out of 398 cases of vivax malaria, 75 patients (all males) suffered from to vivax malaria-induced acute nephropathy. The mean age of the patients who were divided into two groups was 22.8 ± 3.7 and 21.6 ± 1.8 years, respectively (p = 0.089). In group 1, the total serum bilirubin significantly correlated with serum creatinine and eGFR (p = 0.004 and 0.035, correlation coefficient = 0.508 and –0.387, respectively). In group 2, 24-hour proteinuria significantly correlated with hemoglobin (p = 0.004, correlation coefficient = –0.424). Conclusion: Total serum bilirubin (group 1, an absolute increase in serum creatinine of 0.3 mg/dl or more (equal to an eGFR <80 ml/min)) and hemoglobin (group 2, proteinuria) are useful to predict vivax-induced nephropathy.
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