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End-Stage Renal Disease in the USA: Data from the United States Renal Data SystemAgodoa L.Y.a · Jones C.A.b · Held P.J.c
aEnd-Stage Renal Disease Program, and bEpidemiology Program, Division of Kidney, Urologic and Hematologic Diseases, National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Md.; cUnited States Renal Data System Coordinating Center, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Mich., USA
Treated end-stage renal disease continues to increase at an alarming rate in the US. There has been an exponential growth in the incidence rate between 1982 and 1991 at the rate of 8.76% per year. Approximately 218,042 patients received treatment for ESRD in 1991, of which 49,909 were new patients. Although the increase in the incidence rate is seen for all the major disease categories responsible for ESRD, diabetes mellitus, probably type 2, and hypertension are responsible for the bulk of the increase. African Americans and Native Americans have shown the most dramatic increase; diabetes being the major reason for both races, but for African Americans, hypertension is the leading cause of ESRD. A bulk of the increase in the ESRD patient population has been in the older age (greater than 65 years of age) group. The mortality rate for the ESRD patient population, and, specifically, for the dialysis population remains relatively high, with 1-year survival probabilities of approximately 78%. Some of the contributing factors cited for the high death rate, especially in the dialysis patient population include inadequate dialysis dose, low flux of the dialysis membranes, shortened dialysis times, an increase in the age of the ESRD population, and bioincompatible dialysis membranes. The effect of the widely practiced dialyzer reuse on dialysis patient morbidity and mortality remains unclear.
© 1996 S. Karger AG, Basel