For Manuscript Submission, Check or Review Login please go to Submission Websites List.
For the academic login, please select your country in the dropdown list. You will be redirected to verify your credentials.
Current Status of Prognostic Immunohistochemical Markers for Urothelial Bladder CancerRosenblatt R.a · Jonmarker S.a · Lewensohn R.a · Egevad L.d · Sherif A.c · Kälkner K.M.b · Nilsson S.b · Valdman A.a · Ullén A.b
aDepartment of Oncology-Pathology, Karolinska Biomics Center, Departments of bOncology-Pathology and cUrology, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden; dInternational Agency for Research on Cancer, Lyon, France
The management and prognostication of patients with urothelial carcinomas (UCs), the most common histological type of bladder cancer, is mainly based on clinicopathological parameters. Several markers have been proposed to monitor this disease, including individual cell cycle-related proteins such as p53, pRb, p16, p21 and p27. Other putative markers are the oncogene products of FGFR3 and the ErbB family, proliferation markers including Ki-67, Aurora-A and survivin and different components within the immune system. In this review, a total of 12 parameters were evaluated and their discriminatory power compared. It is concluded that, in single-marker analyses, the proliferation markers Ki-67, survivin and Aurora-A offer the best potential to predict disease progression since they were all able to demonstrate independent prognostic power in repeated studies. Markers related to the immune system (e.g. CD8+ cells, regulatory T cells and cyclooxygenase-2 expression) or oncogene products of the ErbB family and FGFR3 are less powerful predictors of outcome or have not been equally well studied. The cell cycle-related proteins p53, pRb, p16, p21 and p27 have been extensively studied, but their usefulness as single prognostic markers remains unclear. However, in multimarker analyses, these markers appear to add prognostic information, indicating that they may contribute to more accurate treatment of UC.
© 2008 S. Karger AG, Basel