Timing and Competence of Neural Crest FormationBasch M.L. · Selleck M.A.J. · Bronner-Fraser M.
a Division of Biology 139-74, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, Calif., and bDepartment of Cell and Neurobiology, University of Southern California School of Medicine, Los Angeles, Calif., USA
Neural crest cells can be induced by an interaction between neural plate and ectoderm. To clarify the timing and nature of these inductive interactions, we have examined the time of competence of the neural plate to become neural crest as well as the time of neural fold specification. The neural plate is competent to respond to inductive interactions with the nonneural ectoderm for a limited period, rapidly losing its responsive ability after stage 10. In contrast, nonneural ectoderm from numerous stages retains the ability to induce neural crest cells from competent neural plate. When neural folds are explanted to test their ability to produce neural crest without further tissue interactions, we find that folds derived from all rostrocaudal levels of the open neural plate are already specified to express the neural crest marker Slug. However, additional signals may be required for maintenance of Slug expression, since the transcript is later down-regulated in vitro in the absence of tissue interactions. Taken together, these results suggest that there are multiple stages of neural crest induction. The earliest induction must have occurred by the end of gastrulation, since the newly formed neural fold population is already specified to form neural crest. However, isolated neural folds eventually down-regulate Slug, suggesting a second phase that maintains neural crest formation. Thus, induction of the neural crest may involve multiple and sustained tissue interactions.
Marianne Bronner-Fraser, PhD
Division of Biology 139-74
California Institute of Technology
Pasadena, CA 91125 (USA)
Tel. +1 626 395 3361, Fax +1 626 395 7717
Received: Received: November 1, 1999
Accepted: December 16, 1999
Number of Print Pages : 11
Number of Figures : 6, Number of Tables : 2, Number of References : 24
Vol. 22, No. 3, Year 2000 (Cover Date: May-June (Released July 2000))
Journal Editor: A.T. Campagnoni, Los Angeles, Calif.
ISSN: 0378–5866 (print), 1421–9859 (Online)
For additional information: http://www.karger.com/journals/dne