Bacterial Peptidoglycan-Degrading Enzymes and Their Impact on Host Muropeptide DetectionHumann J.a · Lenz L.L.a, b
aUniversity of Colorado – Denver and bIntegrated Department of Immunology, National Jewish Health, Denver, Colo., USA
Dr. Laurel L. Lenz
National Jewish Health, Integrated Department of Immunology
Rm K510, 1400 Jackson Street
Denver, CO 80206 (USA)
Tel. +1 303 398 1767, Fax +1 303 398 1396, E-Mail email@example.com
Do you have an account?
Peptidoglycan (PGN) is a major component of the bacterial cell envelope in both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. These muropeptides can be produced or modified by the activity of bacterial glycolytic and peptidolytic enzymes referred to as PGN hydrolases and autolysins. Some of these bacterial enzymes are crucial for bacterial pathogenicity and have been shown to modulate muropeptide release and/or host innate immune responses. The ability of muropeptides to modulate host responses is due to the fact that eukaryotes do not produce PGN and have instead evolved numerous strategies to detect intact PGN and PGN fragments (muropeptides). Here we review the structure of PGN and introduce the various bacterial enzymes known to degrade or modify bacterial PGN. Host factors involved in PGN and muropeptide detection are also briefly discussed, as are examples of how specific bacterial pathogens use PGN degradation and modification to subvert host innate immunity.
© 2008 S. Karger AG, Basel
Article / Publication Details
Copyright / Drug Dosage / DisclaimerCopyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher or, in the case of photocopying, direct payment of a specified fee to the Copyright Clearance Center.
Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug.
Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.