Objective: Eosinophilic cystitis is a rare disease. We reviewed the literature for clinical presentation, diagnosis and therapeutic options to establish recommendations for diagnostic and therapeutic management.
Methods: A pooled analysis was performed of 135 patients with eosinophilic cystitis presented in the literature. The evaluation included patient age, sex and race, presenting symptoms, diagnostic examinations, treatment and results, and complications.
Results: The mean age at diagnosis was 41.6 years (range 5 days to 87 years). An equal distribution existed between males (44%) and females (35%), but in children (21%) boys were more often affected (14%) than girls (7%). The most common presenting symptoms were frequency (67%), dysuria (62%), gross/microscopic hematuria (68%), suprapubic pain (49%) and urinary retention (10%). All patients had a cystoscopy and biopsy; a biopsy is mandatory to establish the diagnosis. Positive urine cultures were found in 26% of the patients. Periferal eosinophilia was present in 43%. An intravenous urography was performed in 66%, ultrasonography in 15%, cystography in 23% and a CT scan in 10%. The majority of patients was treated with combinations of corticosteroids, antihistaminics and antibiotics (45%), avoiding of the suspected antigen (17%), transurethral resection of the lesions (9%), partial cystectomy (4%) or total cystectomy (4%). The success rates for the different treatments were variable: transurethral resection combined with corticosteroids, antihistaminics or antibiotics seemed most successful, while total cystectomy is reserved for patients with unresponsive disease and hematuria. The most common complications were dilation of the upper urinary tract (27%) and eosinophilic gastroenteritis (4.5%); all other complications occurred in less than 3% of the patients.
Conclusion: Eosinophilic cystitis is equally distributed among the sexes, but in children boys are affected more often than girls. The presenting symptoms are frequency, dysuria, hematuria, suprapubic pain and urinary retention. The treatment of choise is (radical) transurethral resection of the lesions in the bladder and a combination of corticosteroids and antihistaminics. Antibiotics are given when a urinary tract infection is present, or when dilation of the upper urinary tract exists. Most patients are cured but recurrence is a frequent finding.
D. van den Ouden, MD, PhD
Department of Urology
St. Clara Hospital Rotterdam
NL–3078 HT Rotterdam (The Netherlands)
Accepted after revision: July 28, 1999
Number of Print Pages : 9
Number of Figures : 0, Number of Tables : 5, Number of References : 86
Official Organ of the European Association of Urology
Vol. 37, No. 4, Year 2000 (Cover Date: April 2000)
Journal Editor: C.C. Schulman, Brussels
ISSN: 0302–2838 (print), 1421–993X (Online)
For additional information: http://www.karger.ch/journals/eur
Article / Publication Details
Published online: 3/17/2000
Issue release date: April 2000
Number of Print Pages: 9
Number of Figures: 0
Number of Tables: 5
ISSN: 0302-2838 (Print)
eISSN: 1421-993X (Online)
For additional information: http://www.karger.com/EUR
Copyright / Drug Dosage
Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher or, in the case of photocopying, direct payment of a specified fee to the Copyright Clearance Center.
Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in goverment regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug.
Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.