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Diagnosis and Management of Eosinophilic Cystitis
A Pooled Analysis of 135 Casesvan den Ouden D.
St. Clara Hospital Rotterdam, The Netherlands
Objective: Eosinophilic cystitis is a rare disease. We reviewed the literature for clinical presentation, diagnosis and therapeutic options to establish recommendations for diagnostic and therapeutic management.
Methods: A pooled analysis was performed of 135 patients with eosinophilic cystitis presented in the literature. The evaluation included patient age, sex and race, presenting symptoms, diagnostic examinations, treatment and results, and complications.
Results: The mean age at diagnosis was 41.6 years (range 5 days to 87 years). An equal distribution existed between males (44%) and females (35%), but in children (21%) boys were more often affected (14%) than girls (7%). The most common presenting symptoms were frequency (67%), dysuria (62%), gross/microscopic hematuria (68%), suprapubic pain (49%) and urinary retention (10%). All patients had a cystoscopy and biopsy; a biopsy is mandatory to establish the diagnosis. Positive urine cultures were found in 26% of the patients. Periferal eosinophilia was present in 43%. An intravenous urography was performed in 66%, ultrasonography in 15%, cystography in 23% and a CT scan in 10%. The majority of patients was treated with combinations of corticosteroids, antihistaminics and antibiotics (45%), avoiding of the suspected antigen (17%), transurethral resection of the lesions (9%), partial cystectomy (4%) or total cystectomy (4%). The success rates for the different treatments were variable: transurethral resection combined with corticosteroids, antihistaminics or antibiotics seemed most successful, while total cystectomy is reserved for patients with unresponsive disease and hematuria. The most common complications were dilation of the upper urinary tract (27%) and eosinophilic gastroenteritis (4.5%); all other complications occurred in less than 3% of the patients.
Conclusion: Eosinophilic cystitis is equally distributed among the sexes, but in children boys are affected more often than girls. The presenting symptoms are frequency, dysuria, hematuria, suprapubic pain and urinary retention. The treatment of choise is (radical) transurethral resection of the lesions in the bladder and a combination of corticosteroids and antihistaminics. Antibiotics are given when a urinary tract infection is present, or when dilation of the upper urinary tract exists. Most patients are cured but recurrence is a frequent finding.