Worry Exposure versus Applied Relaxation in the Treatment of Generalized Anxiety DisorderHoyer J. · Beesdo K. · Gloster A.T. · Runge J. · Höfler M. · Becker E.S.
aClinical Psychology and Psychotherapy, Technische Universität Dresden, Dresden, Germany; bClinical Psychology and Psychotherapy, Radboud Universiteit Nijmegen, Nijmegen, The Netherlands
Background: Worry exposure (WE) is a core element of cognitive-behavioral treatment for generalized anxiety disorder (GAD). Its efficacy as a stand-alone treatment method (without further cognitive-behavioral therapy interventions) has never been tested.We aimed to examine whether WE alone is as efficacious as the empirically supported stand-alone treatment for GAD, applied relaxation (AR). Methods: In a randomized controlled study, 73 outpatients meeting DSM-IV criteria for GAD as primary diagnosis were allocated to either WE or AR or a waiting list control group; in a 2nd randomization procedure the waiting list subjects were reallocated to WE or AR. The treatment was manualized (15 sessions with WE or AR), included 6-month and 1-year follow-ups, as well as last observation carried forward and completer analyses, and was controlled for allegiance effects.The Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale and the State-Trait Anxiety Scale were used as primary outcome measures. Self-report scales of anxiety, worrying and depression including negative metacognition about worrying and thought suppression served as secondary outcome measures. Results: The dropout rate was moderate. The pre-/posttreatment effects were high for the Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale (standardized mean difference >1) and for the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (standardized mean difference >0.87). The proportion of patients reaching high end state functioning was 48% (WE) and 56% (AR). WE and AR did not differ with regard to dropout rate or treatment effects. The treatment effects were stable at 6 month and 1 year follow-up. Conclusion: This is the first study to show that a stand-alone exposure in sensu technique – WE – is efficacious in the treatment of GAD. Both AR and WE seem to represent effective principles of change in GAD.
Prof. Dr. Jürgen Hoyer
Technische Universität Dresden, Klinische Psychologie und Psychotherapie
Hohe Str. 53, DE–01187 Dresden (Germany)
Tel. +49 351 4633 6986, Fax +49 351 4633 6955
Published online: February 13, 2009
Number of Print Pages : 10
Number of Figures : 1, Number of Tables : 4, Number of References : 43
Psychotherapy and Psychosomatics
Vol. 78, No. 2, Year 2009 (Cover Date: March 2009)
Journal Editor: Fava G.A. (Bologna)
ISSN: 0033-3190 (Print), eISSN: 1423-0348 (Online)
For additional information: http://www.karger.com/PPS