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Vol. 16, No. 2, 2009
Issue release date: April 2009
Editor's Choice -- Free Access
Forsch Komplementmed 2009;16:105–110
Original Article · Originalarbeit

Homeopathic Pathogenetic Trials Produce Specific Symptoms Different from Placebo

Möllinger H.a · Schneider R.b · Walach H.c
a Private Practice, Amriswil, Switzerland b Department of Human Sciences, University of Osnabrück, Germany c School of Social Sciences and Samueli Institute, European Office, University of Northampton, UK


Introduction: Homeopathy uses information gathered from healthy volunteers taking homeopathic substances (pathogenetic trials) for clinical treatment. It is controversial whether such studies produce symptoms different from those produced by placebo. Objective: To test whether homeopathic preparations produce different symptoms than placebo in healthy volunteers. Methods: Three armed, double-blind, placebo controlled randomised experimental pathogenetic study in 25 healthy volunteers who took either one of two homeopathic remedies, Natrum muriaticum and Arsenicum album in 30CH or identical placebo. Main outcome parameter was the number of remedy-specific symptoms per group. Results: On average, 6 symptoms typical for Arsenicum album were experienced by participants taking arsenicum album, 5 symptoms typical for Natrum muriaticum by those taking natrum muriaticum, and 11 non-specific symptoms by those in the placebo group. Differences were significant overall (Kruskall Wallis test, p = 0.0002,) and significantly different from placebo (Mann-Whitney test, p = 0.001). Conclusion: Homeopathic remedies produce different symptoms than placebo.

 goto top of outline Author Contacts

Prof. Harald Walach, PhD, University of Northampton, School of Social Sciences and Samueli Institute, European Office, Boughton Green Rd, Northampton NN2 7AL, UK, Tel. +44 1604 892952,

 goto top of outline Article Information

Published_online: April 9, 2009
Number of Print Pages : 6

 goto top of outline Publication Details

Forschende Komplementärmedizin / Research in Complementary Medicine (Research Practice Perspectives - Wissenschaft Praxis Perspektiven)

Vol. 16, No. 2, Year 2009 (Cover Date: April 2009)

Journal Editor: Walach H. (Northampton)
ISSN: 1661-4119 (Print), eISSN: 1661-4127 (Online)

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