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Consequences of Early Experiences and Exposure to Oxytocin and Vasopressin Are Sexually DimorphicCarter C.S.a · Boone E.M.a, c · Pournajafi-Nazarloo H.a · Bales K.L.b
aDepartment of Psychiatry, Brain Body Center, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, Ill., bDepartment of Psychology, University of California, Davis, Calif., and cNational Institute on Drug Abuse, NIH, DHHS, Bethesda, Md., USA Corresponding Author
Department of Psychiatry, Brain Body Center
University of Illinois at Chicago
Chicago, IL 60612 (USA)
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In the socially monogamous prairie vole, we have observed that small changes in early handling, as well as early hormonal manipulations can have long-lasting and sexually dimorphic effects on behavior. These changes may be mediated in part by changes in parental interactions with their young, acting on systems that rely on oxytocin (OT) and arginine vasopressin (AVP). Knowledge of both endogenous and exogenous influences on systems that rely on OT and AVP may be helpful in understanding sexually dimorphic developmental disorders, such as autism, that are characterized by increased anxiety and deficits in social behavior.
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