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Cover

Peritoneal Dialysis - From Basic Concepts to Clinical Excellence

Editor(s): Ronco C. (Vicenza) 
Crepaldi C. (Vicenza) 
Cruz D.N. (Vicenza) 
Table of Contents
Vol. 163, No. , 2009
Section title: Calcium Phosphorus, Vitamin D Receptor and Peritoneal Dialysis
Ronco C, Crepaldi C, Cruz DN (eds): Peritoneal Dialysis – From Basic Concepts to Clinical Excellence. Contrib Nephrol. Basel, Karger, 2009, vol 163, pp 206–212
(DOI:10.1159/000223800)

The Physiology of Vitamin D Receptor Activation

Valdivielso J.M.
Laboratorio de Investigación Hospital Universitario Arnau de Vilanova, IRBLLEIDA, Lleida, Spain

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Article / Publication Details

First-Page Preview
Abstract of Calcium Phosphorus, Vitamin D Receptor and Peritoneal Dialysis

Published online: June 03, 2009
Cover Date: 2009

Number of Print Pages: 7
Number of Figures: 0
Number of Tables: 0

ISBN: 978-3-8055-9202-4 (Print)
eISBN: 978-3-8055-9203-1 (Online)

Abstract

Vitamin D is a steroid hormone that has long been known for its important role in regulating body levels of calcium and phosphorus, and in mineralization of bone. In addition to its endocrine effects, vitamin D has important autocrine/paracrine roles. The last step in the activation of vitamin D, the hydroxylation on carbon 1, takes place mainly in the kidney. However, extrarenal sites showing 1alpha-hydroxylase activity have been also found. The hormonally active form of vitamin D (1,25(OH)-D3 or calcitriol) mediates its biological effects by binding to the vitamin D receptor, which then translocates to the nuclei of the cell and binds to specific DNA sites to modify the expression of target genes. After activation of the receptor, the protein changes its tridimensional conformation, this change being the key process in order to exert its nuclear actions. Several steps take place in order to increase or decrease the transcription rate of a target gene. First, homodimerization of the vitamin D receptor or heterodimerization with the retinoic X receptor allows the complex to go into the nucleus and bind to the DNA. Then several proteins are recruited to the complex that either increase or decrease chromatin condensation acting then as corepresors or coactivators, respectively, and decreasing or increasing the target gene transcription. The coactivators bind several extra proteins that build a bridge to the basal transcription machinery. Therefore, little changes in the receptor’s tridimensional change elicted by the activator can lead to differences in protein recruitment and, thus, in gene transactivation. Furthermore, differences in the cellular environment can yield different responses to the same activator. This characteristic of the nuclear receptors makes them a good candidate as a valuable therapeutic target.

© 2009 S. Karger AG, Basel


Article / Publication Details

First-Page Preview
Abstract of Calcium Phosphorus, Vitamin D Receptor and Peritoneal Dialysis

Published online: June 03, 2009
Cover Date: 2009

Number of Print Pages: 7
Number of Figures: 0
Number of Tables: 0

ISBN: 978-3-8055-9202-4 (Print)
eISBN: 978-3-8055-9203-1 (Online)


Copyright / Drug Dosage / Disclaimer

Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher or, in the case of photocopying, direct payment of a specified fee to the Copyright Clearance Center.
Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug.
Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.