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Table of Contents
Vol. 13, No. 2, 2010
Issue release date: December 2009
Section title: Review
Public Health Genomics 2010;13:106–115
(DOI:10.1159/000226594)

Population Screening for Genetic Disorders in the 21st Century: Evidence, Economics, and Ethics

Grosse S.D. · Rogowski W.H. · Ross L.F. · Cornel M.C. · Dondorp W.J. · Khoury M.J.
aNational Center on Birth Defects and Developmental Disabilities and bNational Office of Public Health Genomics, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Atlanta, Ga., USA; cHelmholtz Zentrum München, German Research Center for Environmental Health (GmbH), Institute of Health Economics and Health Care Management, Neuherberg, Germany; dDepartment of Pediatrics and the MacLean Center for Clinical Medical Ethics at the University of Chicago, Chicago, Ill., USA; eCommunity Genetics Section, Department of Clinical Genetics/EMGO Institute, VU University Medical Center (VUMC), Amsterdam, fDepartment of Health, Ethics & Society, Faculty of Health, Medicine & Life Sciences, Maastricht University, Maastricht, The Netherlands

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Article / Publication Details

First-Page Preview
Abstract of Review

Received: 1/8/2009
Accepted: 4/14/2009
Published online: 6/29/2009

Number of Print Pages: 10
Number of Figures: 0
Number of Tables: 1

ISSN: 1662-4246 (Print)
eISSN: 1662-8063 (Online)

For additional information: http://www.karger.com/PHG

Abstract

Background: Proposals for population screening for genetic diseases require careful scrutiny by decision makers because of the potential for harms and the need to demonstrate benefits commensurate with the opportunity cost of resources expended. Methods: We review current evidence-based processes used in the United States, the United Kingdom, and the Netherlands to assess genetic screening programs, including newborn screening programs, carrier screening, and organized cascade testing of relatives of patients with genetic syndromes. In particular, we address critical evidentiary, economic, and ethical issues that arise in the appraisal of screening tests offered to the population. Specific case studies include newborn screening for congenital adrenal hyperplasia and cystic fibrosis and adult screening for hereditary hemochromatosis. Results: Organizations and countries often reach different conclusions about the suitability of screening tests for implementation on a population basis. Deciding when and how to introduce pilot screening programs is challenging. In certain cases, e.g., hereditary hemochromatosis, a consensus does not support general screening although cascade screening may be cost-effective. Conclusion: Genetic screening policies have often been determined by technological capability, advocacy, and medical opinion rather than through a rigorous evidence-based review process. Decision making should take into account principles of ethics and opportunity costs.


  

Author Contacts

Scott D. Grosse
National Center on Birth Defects and Developmental Disabilities
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Atlanta, GA 30333 (USA)
Tel. +1 404 498 3074, Fax +1 404 498 3060, E-Mail sgg4@cdc.gov

  

Article Information

Received: January 8, 2009
Accepted after revision: April 14, 2009
Published online: June 29, 2009
Number of Print Pages : 10
Number of Figures : 0, Number of Tables : 1, Number of References : 100

  

Publication Details

Public Health Genomics

Vol. 13, No. 2, Year 2010 (Cover Date: December 2009)

Journal Editor: Knoppers B.M. (Montreal, Que.), Brand A. (Maastricht), Burke W. (Seattle, Wash.), Khoury M.J. (Atlanta, Ga.)
ISSN: 1662-4246 (Print), eISSN: 1662-8063 (Online)

For additional information: http://www.karger.com/PHG


Article / Publication Details

First-Page Preview
Abstract of Review

Received: 1/8/2009
Accepted: 4/14/2009
Published online: 6/29/2009

Number of Print Pages: 10
Number of Figures: 0
Number of Tables: 1

ISSN: 1662-4246 (Print)
eISSN: 1662-8063 (Online)

For additional information: http://www.karger.com/PHG


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