Age and Time of Day Influences on the Expression of Transforming Growth Factor-Beta and Phosphorylated SMAD3 in the Mouse Suprachiasmatic and Paraventricular NucleiBeynon A.L. · Thome J. · Coogan A.N.
Neuroscience and Molecular Psychiatry, Institute of Life Science, School of Medicine, Swansea University, Swansea, UK
Do you have an account?
- Rent for 48h to view
- Buy Cloud Access for unlimited viewing via different devices
- Synchronizing in the ReadCube Cloud
- Printing and saving restrictions apply
Rental: USD 8.50
Cloud: USD 20.00
Article / Publication Details
Background/Aims: The master mammalian circadian pacemaker is the suprachiasmatic nuclei (SCN) of the hypothalamus. In this study we examined the expression of transforming growth factor (TGF)-β and the associated signaller phosphorylated SMAD3 (pSMAD3) in the SCN and the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) of the hypothalamus of the young and older mouse across the diurnal cycle, in order to ascertain whether there are time-of-day and age influences on their expression in the hypothalamus. Methods: Immunohistochemistry coupled to densitometric analysis has been used to quantitate the expression of TGF-β and pSMAD3 in the SCN and PVN. Results: We have demonstrated a diurnal pattern of expression of TGF-β in the SCN of young animals, a rhythm that is lost in older mice. The PVN also shows diurnal expression of TGF-β and older mice exhibit elevated levels. Finally, we have demonstrated a novel day/night difference in the expression of pSMAD3, a part of the TGF signalling pathway, in the SCN, a rhythm that appears to be lost with age. Conclusion: We conclude that TGF-β and pSMAD3 are expressed under basal conditions in the SCN and PVN, and this expression is modulated in both a diurnal and age-dependent manner.
© 2009 S. Karger AG, Basel
Article / Publication Details
Copyright / Drug Dosage / DisclaimerCopyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher or, in the case of photocopying, direct payment of a specified fee to the Copyright Clearance Center.
Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug.
Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.