Genetic Diversity in an Andean Population from Peru and Regional Migration Patterns of Amerindians in South America: Data from Y Chromosome and Mitochondrial DNARodriguez-Delfin L.A. · Rubin-de-Celis V.E. · Zago M.A.
Department of Clinical Medicine, School of Medicine, Ribeirão Preto, Brazil
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The genetic variability of a Quechua-speaking Andean population from Peru was examined on the basis of four Y chromosome markers and restriction sites that define the Amerindian mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplogroups. Forty-nine out of 52 (90.4%) individuals had mtDNA which belonged to one of the four common Amerindian haplogroups, with 54% of the samples belonging to haplogroup B. Among 25 males, 12 had an Amerindian Y chromosome, which exists as four haplotypes defined on the basis of the DYS287, DYS199, DYS392 and DYS19 markers, three of which are shared by Amazonian Amerindians. Thus, there is a clear directionality of marriages, with an estimated genetic admixture with non-Amerindians that is 9 times lower for mtDNA than for Y chromosome DNA. The comparison of mtDNA of Andean Amerindians with that of people from other regions of South America in a total of 1,086 individuals demonstrates a geographical pattern, with a decreasing frequency of A and C haplotypes and increasing frequency of the D haplotype from the north of the Amazon River to the south of the Amazon River, reaching the lowest and the highest frequencies, respectively, in the more southern populations of Chile and Argentina. Conversely, the highest and lowest frequencies of the haplogroup B are found, respectively, in the Andean and the North Amazon regions, and it is absent from some southern populations, suggesting that haplotypes A, C and D, and haplotype B may have been dispersed by two different migratory routes within the continent.
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