A Ceramide-binding C1 Domain Mediates Kinase Suppressor of Ras Membrane TranslocationYin X.1 · Zafrullah M.1 · Lee H.1 · Haimovitz-Friedman A.2 · Fuks Z.2 · Kolesnick R.1
1Laboratory of Signal Transduction and2Department of Radiation Oncology, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York Corresponding Author
Richard Kolesnick MD
Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center
1275 York Avenue, New York, NY 10021 (USA)
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Genetic and biochemical data support Kinase Suppressor of Ras 1 (KSR1) as a positive regulator of the Ras-Raf-MAPK pathway, functioning as a kinase and/or scaffold to regulate c-Raf-1 activation. Membrane translocation mediated by the KSR1 CA3 domain, which is homologous to the atypical PKC C1 lipid-binding domain, is a critical step of KSR1-mediated c-Raf-1 activation. In this study, we used an ELISA to characterize the KSR1 CA3 domain as a lipid-binding moiety. Purified GST-KSR1-CA3 protein effectively binds ceramide but not other lipids including 1,2-diacylglyceol, dihydroceramide, ganglioside GM1, sphingomyelin and phosphatidylcholine. Upon epidermal growth factor stimulation of COS-7 cells, KSR1 translocates into and is activated within glycosphingolipid-enriched plasma membrane platforms. Pharmacologic inhibition of ceramide generation attenuates KSR1 translocation and KSR1 kinase activation in COS-7 cells. Disruption of two cysteines, which are indispensable for maintaining ternary structure of all C1 domains and their lipid binding capability, mitigates ceramide-binding capacity of purified GST-KSR1-CA3 protein, and inhibits full length KSR1 membrane translocation and kinase activation. These studies provide evidence for a mechanism by which the second messenger ceramide can target proteins to subcellular compartments in the process of transmembrane signal transduction.
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