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Table of Contents
Vol. 1, No. 6, 2009
Issue release date: October 2009
Section title: Research Article
J Innate Immun 2009;1:570–581
(DOI:10.1159/000235563)

NOX4 Expression in Human Microglia Leads to Constitutive Generation of Reactive Oxygen Species and to Constitutive IL-6 Expression

Li B.a · Bedard K.a · Sorce S.a · Hinz B.b · Dubois-Dauphin M.a · Krause K.-H.a
aDepartment of Pathology and Immunology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Geneva, Geneva, Switzerland; bLaboratory of Tissue Repair and Regeneration, CIHR Group in Matrix Dynamics, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ont., Canada

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Article / Publication Details

First-Page Preview
Abstract of Research Article

Received: April 20, 2009
Accepted: June 16, 2009
Published online: August 14, 2009
Issue release date: October 2009

Number of Print Pages: 12
Number of Figures: 7
Number of Tables: 0

ISSN: 1662-811X (Print)
eISSN: 1662-8128 (Online)

For additional information: http://www.karger.com/JIN

Abstract

Reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation by microglia is implicated in neuroinflammation and neurotoxicity, as well as in host defense, cell proliferation and excitatory amino acid release. Recent studies demonstrate that primary microglia preparations not only express the phagocyte NADPH oxidase NOX2, but also the NOX1 and NOX4 isoforms. Here we investigated the relationship between neuroinflammation and NOX isoform expression in the human microglia cell line clone 3 (HMC3). HMC3 cells are typical microglia, as suggested by the constitutive expression of Iba-1 and CD14, and IFN-γ-induced expression of CD11b, CD68 and MHCII. However, the characteristics of NOX isoform expression and ROS generation by HMC3 cells were unexpected. RT-PCR demonstrated abundant expression of NOX4, but almost no NOX2 mRNA. ROS generation was constitutive and appeared predominantly intracellular, as superoxide was detected within intracellular vesicles, while the cell-permeable H2O2 was found in the extracellular space. ROS generation by HMC3 was efficiently suppressed by siRNA directed against NOX4, but not by control siRNA. NOX4 suppression did not alter expression of the microglia-typical genes MHCII, CD68 and CD11b, nor did it affect the expression of iNOS, VEGF or TGF-β. However, there was a marked decrease in IL-6 mRNA. Taken together, we demonstrate a constitutive NOX4-dependent ROS generation in a microglial cell line which leads to expression of IL-6 mRNA. The possibility that microglia could switch from tightly regulated NOX2-dependent ROS generation to constitutive NOX4-dependent ROS generation is of interest for the understanding of the role of microglia in maintaining the balance between neuroprotection and neuroinflammatory damage.

© 2009 S. Karger AG, Basel


Article / Publication Details

First-Page Preview
Abstract of Research Article

Received: April 20, 2009
Accepted: June 16, 2009
Published online: August 14, 2009
Issue release date: October 2009

Number of Print Pages: 12
Number of Figures: 7
Number of Tables: 0

ISSN: 1662-811X (Print)
eISSN: 1662-8128 (Online)

For additional information: http://www.karger.com/JIN


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Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug.
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