Cover

Microbial Host-Interaction: Tolerance versus Allergy

64th Nestlé Nutrition Institute Workshop, Pediatric Program, Sydney, November 2008

Editor(s): Brandtzaeg P. (Oslo) 
Isolauri E. (Turku) 
Prescott S.L. (Perth, W.A.) 
Table of Contents
Vol. 64, No. , 2009
Section title: Keynote Talks
Brandtzaeg P, Isolauri E, Prescott SL (eds): Microbial–Host Interaction: Tolerance versus Allergy. Nestlé Nutr Inst Workshop Ser Pediatr Program, vol 64, pp 1–10, Nestec Ltd., Vevey/S. Karger AG, Basel, © 2009
(DOI:10.1159/000235779)

A Paradigm for Commensalism: The Role of a Specific Microbial Polysaccharide in Health and Disease

Kasper D.L.
Channing Laboratory, Brigham and Women’s Hospital and Department of Microbiology and Molecular Genetics, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA

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Article / Publication Details

First-Page Preview
Abstract of Keynote Talks

Published online: 8/19/2009
Cover Date: 2009

Number of Print Pages: 10
Number of Figures: 0
Number of Tables: 0

ISBN: 978-3-8055-9167-6 (Print)
eISBN: 978-3-8055-9168-3 (Online)

Abstract

The human gastrointestinal tract is colonized by 100 trillion microorganisms, including both beneficial and potentially pathogenic species. A zwitterionic polysaccharide (PSA) from the gastrointestinal microorganism Bacteroides fragilis has been shown to be the archetypal molecule of commensal bacteria that mediates development of the host immune system. PSA stimulates the normal balance of Th1 and Th2 CD4+ T cells and can correct histologic defects in the spleen and thymus of germ-free mice. PSA stimulates the innate immune system as a ligand for Toll-like receptor 2 and thereby promotes interactions with the adaptive immune system that are required for T-cell activation. PSA protects animals from colitis induced by Helicobacter hepaticus, a commensal with pathogenic potential. In animals harboring a B. fragilis mutant that does not express PSA, H. hepaticus colonization leads to disease and proinflammatory cytokine production in colonic tissues. Purified PSA administered to animals suppresses the production of the proinflammatory cytokine interleukin-17 by intestinal immune cells. PSA protects animals from inflammatory disease through a functional requirement for interleukin-10-producing CD4+ T cells. Thus polysaccharides of the bacterial microbiota can mediate the critical balance between health and disease in the host. As evidence accumulates, this concept is being accepted as an important feature of the immune repertoire.


  

Article Information

Number of Print Pages : 10

  

Publication Details

Book Serie: Nestlé Nutrition Institute Workshop Series: Pediatric Program, Vol. 64, Year 2009 ISSN: 1661-6677 (Print), eISSN: 1662-3878 (Online)

For additional information:
http://content.karger.com/ProdukteDB/produkte.asp?issn=1661-6677

Book Title: Microbial Host-Interaction: Tolerance versus Allergy (64th Nestlé Nutrition Institute Workshop, Pediatric Program, Sydney, November 2008)

Editor(s): de Reuse H, Bereswill S (eds)

For additional information:
http://content.karger.com/ProdukteDB/produkte.asp?issn=1661-6677&volume=64


Article / Publication Details

First-Page Preview
Abstract of Keynote Talks

Published online: 8/19/2009
Cover Date: 2009

Number of Print Pages: 10
Number of Figures: 0
Number of Tables: 0

ISBN: 978-3-8055-9167-6 (Print)
eISBN: 978-3-8055-9168-3 (Online)


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Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in goverment regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug.
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