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Table of Contents
Vol. 195, No. 3, 1997
Issue release date: 1997
Section title: Pharmacology and Treatment
Dermatology 1997;195:258–262
(DOI:10.1159/000245955)

Effects of Soap and Detergents on Skin Surface pH, Stratum corneum Hydration and Fat Content in Infants

Gfatter R. · Hackl P. · Braun F.
aDepartment of Pediatrics, University of Vienna, School of Medicine, and bDepartment of Statistics, University of Economics and Business Administration, Vienna, Austria

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Article / Publication Details

First-Page Preview
Abstract of Pharmacology and Treatment

Received: 2/27/1997
Accepted: 5/28/1997
Published online: 10/6/2009

Number of Print Pages: 5
Number of Figures: 0
Number of Tables: 0

ISSN: 1018-8665 (Print)
eISSN: 1421-9832 (Online)

For additional information: http://www.karger.com/DRM

Abstract

Background: In adults the influence of cleansing preparations on the pH, fat content and hydration of the skin is well documented. Studies in newborn and small infants have not been reported. Objective: Our study aimed at examining whether similar effects can be ascertained in infants. Methods: Infants without skin disease, aged 2 weeks to 16 months, entered an open, controlled and randomized study. Ten infants each had skin washed with tap water (control group), liquid detergent (pH 5.5), compact detergent (pH 5.5) or alkaline soap (pH 9.5). The pH, fat content and hydration were measured before and 10 min after cleansing. Findings were statistically evaluated by parametric covariance analysis. Results: The skin pH increased from an average of 6.60 after cleansing in all groups. The smallest increase (+0.19) was observed in the control group, the largest (+0.45) after washing with alkaline soap. After treatment with liquid or compact detergent, the increase of the pH was only 0.09 higher than for the control group. In comparison to the compact and liquid detergents, the alkaline soap group had a significantly higher increase in pH. The fat content (mean starting value: 4.34 μg/cm2) decreased after washing in all groups; the smallest effect was observed in the control group (decrease of 0.93 μg/cm2), the highest for the alkaline soap group (decrease of 4.81 μg/cm2). In comparison to the compact and liquid detergents, the alkaline soap group had a higher decrease in fat content. This difference was significant for compact detergents. No statistically significant differences were observed for hydration before versus after washing. Conclusion: Each cleansing agent, even normal tap water, influences the skin surface. The increase of the skin pH irritates the physiological protective ‘acid mantle’, changes the composition of the cutaneous bacterial flora and the activity of enzymes in the upper epidermis, which have an acid pH optimum. The dissolution of fat from the skin surface may influence the hydration status leading to a dry and squamous skin.


  

Author Contacts

F. Braun, MD, Department of Pediatrics, University of Vienna, School of Medicine, Währinger Gürtel 18-20, A-1090 Vienna (Austria), Tel. 1-40400-3188, Fax 1-40400-3189

  

Article Information

Received: February 27, 1997
Accepted: May 28, 1997
Published online: October 06, 2009
Number of Print Pages : 5

  

Publication Details

Dermatology

Vol. 195, No. 3, Year 1997 (Cover Date: 1997)

Journal Editor: Saurat J.-H. (Geneva)
ISSN: 1018-8665 (Print), eISSN: 1421-9832 (Online)

For additional information: http://www.karger.com/DRM


Article / Publication Details

First-Page Preview
Abstract of Pharmacology and Treatment

Received: 2/27/1997
Accepted: 5/28/1997
Published online: 10/6/2009

Number of Print Pages: 5
Number of Figures: 0
Number of Tables: 0

ISSN: 1018-8665 (Print)
eISSN: 1421-9832 (Online)

For additional information: http://www.karger.com/DRM


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Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in goverment regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug.
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