Pulsatile Stretch and Shear Stress: Physical Stimuli Determining the Production of Endothelium-Derived Relaxing FactorsBusse R. · Fleming I.
Institut für Kardiovaskuläre Physiologie, Klinikum der Johann-Wolfgang-Goethe- Universität, Frankfurt am Main, Deutschland
Mechanical forces generated at the endothelium by fluid shear stress and pulsatile stretch are important in ensuring the continuous release of vasoactive endothelial autacoids. Although the mechanism by which endothelial cells are able to detect and convert these physical stimuli into chemical signals is unclear, this process involves the activation of integrins, G proteins and cascades of protein kinases. The constitutive endothelial nitric oxide synthase (NOS III), classified as a Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent isoform, can be activated by shear stress and isometric contraction in the absence of a maintained increase in [Ca2+]i via a mechanism involving its redistribution within the cytoskeleton/caveolae and the activation of one or more regulatory NOS-associated proteins. Thus it would appear that the intracellular cascades activated by Ca2+-elevating receptor-dependent agonists, such as bradykinin, and hemodynamic stimuli are distinct. Rhythmic vessel distension is also able to elicit the synthesis of superoxide anions and the endothelium-derived hyperpolarizing factor which play a role in modulating arterial compliance in certain vascular beds.
Dr. Rudi Busse
Institut für Kardiovaskuläre Physiologie
Klinikum der Johann-Wolfgang-Goethe-Universität, Theodor-Stern-Kai 7
D–60590 Frankfurt am Main (Germany)
Tel. +49 69 6301 6052, Fax +49 69 6301 7668, E-Mail firstname.lastname@example.org
This review was presented as the R.F.Furchgott lecture at the 7th International Symposium on Mechanisms of Vasodilatation, Maastricht, July 6–9, 1997.
Received: Received: August 7, 1997
Accepted after revision: October 23, 1997
Number of Print Pages : 12
Number of Figures : 3, Number of Tables : 1, Number of References : 132
Journal of Vascular Research
Founded 1964 as Angiologica by M. Comèl and L. Laszt (1964–1973) continued as Blood Vessels by J.A. Bevan (1974–1991)
Vol. 35, No. 2, Year 1998 (Cover Date: March-April 1998)
Journal Editor: M.J. Mulvany, Aarhus
ISSN: 1018–1172 (print), 1423–0135 (Online)
For additional information: http://www.karger.com/journals/jvr