The Evolution of Flexible Behavioral Repertoires in Cephalopod MolluscsGrasso F.W. · Basil J.A.
aDepartment of Psychology and the CUNY Graduate Center, Program in Ecology, Evolutionary Biology and Behavior, Program in Cognition, Brain and Behavior, bDepartment of Biology and the CUNY Graduate Center, Program in Ecology, Evolutionary Biology and Behavior, Brooklyn College, CUNY, Brooklyn, N.Y., USA
Cephalopods are a large and ancient group of marine animals with complex brains. Forms extant today are equipped with brains, sensors, and effectors that allow them not to just exist beside modern vertebrates as predators and prey; they compete fiercely with marine vertebrates at every scale from small crustaceans to sperm whales. We review the evolution of this group’s brains, learning ability and complex behavior. We outline evidence that although competition with vertebrates has left a deep impression on the brains and behavior of cephalopods, the original reorganization of their complex brains from their molluscan ancestors might have been forged in ancient seas millions of years before the advent of bony fishes.
Frank W. Grasso, Department of Psychology and the CUNY Graduate Center
Program in Ecology, Evolutionary Biology and Behavior, Program in Cognition,
Brain and Behavior, Brooklyn College, CUNY, 2900 Bedford Ave
Brooklyn, NY 11210 (USA), Tel. +1 718 951 5000, ext. 4529, Fax +1 718 951 4814
F.W. Grasso and J.A. Basil contributed equally to the manuscript.
Published online: December 21, 2009
Number of Print Pages : 15
Number of Figures : 3, Number of Tables : 1, Number of References : 160
Brain, Behavior and Evolution
Vol. 74, No. 3, Year 2009 (Cover Date: December 2009)
Journal Editor: Wilczynski W. (Atlanta, Ga.), Striedter G.F. (Irvine, Calif.)
ISSN: 0006-8977 (Print), eISSN: 1421-9743 (Online)
For additional information: http://www.karger.com/BBE