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Use of Encapsulated Stem Cells to Overcome the Bottleneck of Cell Availability for Cell Therapy ApproachesFreimark D.a · Pino-Grace P.P.a · Pohl S.a · Weber C.a · Wallrapp C.b · Geigle P.b · Pörtner R.c · Czermak P.a, d
a Institute of Biopharmaceutical Technology, University of Applied Sciences, Gießen b CellMed AG, Alzenau c Institute of Bioprocess and Biosystems Engineering, University of Technology, Hamburg, Germany d Department of Chemical Engineering, Kansas State University, Manhattan, KS, USA Corresponding Author
Prof. Dr.-Ing. Peter Czermak, Institut für Biopharmazeutische Technologie, Fachhochschule Gießen-Friedberg, Wiesenstraße 14, 35390 Gießen, Germany, Tel. +49 641 309 25-51, -Fax -53, firstname.lastname@example.org
Nowadays cell-based therapy is rarely in clinical practice because of the limited availability of appropriate cells. To apply cells therapeutically, they must not cause any immune response wherefore mainly autologous cells have been used up to now. The amount of vital cells in patients is limited, and under certain circumstances in highly degenerated tissues no vital cells are left. Moreover, the extraction of these cells is connected with additional surgery; also the expansion in vitro is difficult. Other approaches avoid these problems by using allo-or even xenogenic cells. These cells are more stable concerning their therapeutic behavior and can be produced in stock. To prevent an immune response caused by these cells, cell encapsulation (e.g. with alginate) can be performed. Certain studies showed that encapsulated allo-and xenogenic cells achieve promising results in treatment of several diseases. For such cell therapy approaches, stem cells, particularly mesenchymal stem cells, are an interesting cell source. This review deals on the one hand with the use of encapsulated cells, especially stem cells, in cell therapy and on the other hand with bioreactor systems for the expansion and differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells in reproducible and sufficient amounts for potential clinical use.
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