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Cover

TNF Pathophysiology

Molecular and Cellular Mechanisms

Editor(s): Kollias G. (Vari) 
Sfikakis P.P. (Athens) 
Table of Contents
Vol. 11, No. , 2010
Section title: Paper
Kollias G, Sfikakis PP (eds): TNF Pathophysiology. Molecular and Cellular Mechanisms. Curr Dir Autoimmun. Basel, Karger, 2010, vol 11, pp 145–156
(DOI:10.1159/000289203)

TNF-α and Obesity

Tzanavari T. · Giannogonas P. · Karalis K.P.
Division of Developmental Biology, Biomedical Research Foundation, Academy of Athens, Athens, Greece

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Article / Publication Details

First-Page Preview
Abstract of Paper

Published online: February 18, 2010
Cover Date: 2010

Number of Print Pages: 12
Number of Figures: 0
Number of Tables: 0

ISBN: 978-3-8055-9383-0 (Print)
eISBN: 978-3-8055-9384-7 (Online)

Abstract

Obesity, an epidemic of our times with rates rising to alarming levels, is associated with comorbidities including cardiovascular diseases, arthritis, certain cancers, and degenerative diseases of the brain and other organs. Importantly, obesity is a leading cause of insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. As emerging evidence has shown over the last decade, inflammation is one of the critical processes associated with the development of insulin resistance, diabetes and related diseases, and obesity is now considered as a state of chronic low-grade inflammation. Adipose tissue, apart from its classical role as an energy storage depot, is also a major endocrine organ secreting many factors, whose local and circulating levels are affected by the degree of adiposity. Obesity leads to infiltration of the expanded adipose tissue by macrophages and increased levels in proinflammatory cytokines. The first indication for increased cytokine release in obesity was provided by the identification of increased expression of TNF-Α, a proinflammatory cytokine, in the adipose tissue of obese mice in the early 1990s. TNF-Α is expressed in and secreted by adipose tissue, its levels correlating with the degree of adiposity and the associated insulin resistance. Targeting TNF-Α and/or its receptors has been suggested as a promising treatment for insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. This review will summarize the available knowledge on the role of TNF-Α in obesity and related processes and the potential implications of the above in the development of new therapeutic approaches for obesity and insulin resistance. Recent data from clinical studies will also be described together with late findings on the pathogenesis of obesity and insulin resistance.

© 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel


Article / Publication Details

First-Page Preview
Abstract of Paper

Published online: February 18, 2010
Cover Date: 2010

Number of Print Pages: 12
Number of Figures: 0
Number of Tables: 0

ISBN: 978-3-8055-9383-0 (Print)
eISBN: 978-3-8055-9384-7 (Online)


Copyright / Drug Dosage / Disclaimer

Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher or, in the case of photocopying, direct payment of a specified fee to the Copyright Clearance Center.
Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug.
Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.