Journal Mobile Options
Table of Contents
Vol. 56, No. 4, 2010
Issue release date: June 2010
Ann Nutr Metab 2010;56:273–282
(DOI:10.1159/000295848)
Original Paper

Islamic Fasting and Health

Azizi F.
Endocrine Research Center, Research Institute for Endocrine Sciences, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, I.R. Iran

Abstract

Background: Muslims fast from sunrise to sunset during the month of Ramadan, the 9th lunar month. The duration of fasting varies from 13 to 18 h/day. Fasting includes avoidance of drinking liquids and eating foods. The aim of this article is to review health-related aspects of Ramadan fasting. Methods: Related abstracts from 1960 to 2009 were obtained from Medline and local journals in Islamic countries. One hundred and thirteen articles meeting the criteria for paper selection were reviewed in depth to identify details of related materials. Results: During the fasting days of Ramadan glucose homeostasis is maintained by meals taken before dawn and by liver glycogen stores. Changes in serum lipids are variable and depend on the quality and quantity of food consumption and changes in weight. Compliant, well-controlled type 2 diabetics may observe Ramadan fasting, but fasting is not recommended for type 1, noncompliant, poorly controlled and pregnant diabetics. There are no adverse effects of Ramadan fasting on the heart, lung, liver, kidney, eyes, hematologic profile, endocrine and neuropsychiatric functions. Conclusions: Although Ramadan fasting is safe for all healthy individuals, those with various diseases should consult their physicians and follow scientific recommendations.

References

  1. Azizi F: Medical aspects of Islamic fasting. MedJ IR Iran 1996;10:241–246.
  2. Azizi F: Research in Islamic fasting and health. Ann Saudi Med 2002;122:186–191.
  3. Proceedings of the First International Congress on Health and Ramadan. January 19–22, 1994, Casablanca, Morocco.
  4. Proceedings of the Second International Congress on Health and Ramadan. December 1–3, 1997, Istanbul, Turkey.
  5. Heber D: Starvation and nutrition therapy; in DeGroot LJ, Jameson JL (eds): Endocrinology ed 4. Philadelphia, Saunders, 2001, vol 1, pp 642–645.
  6. Hasselbalch SG, Knudsen GM, Jakobsen J, Hageman LP, Holm S, Paulson OB: Blood-brain barrier permeability of glucose and ketone bodies during short-term starvation in humans. Am J Physiol 1995;268:E1161–E1166.
  7. Azizi F, Rasouli HA: Serum glucose, bilirubin, calcium, phosphorus, protein and albumin concentrations during Ramadan. Med J IR Iran 1987;1:38–41.
  8. Scott TG: The effect of Muslim fast of Ramadan on routine laboratory investigation. King Abdulaziz Med J 1981;1:23–35.
  9. Temizhan A, Tandogan I, Donderici O, Demirbas B: The effects of Ramadan fasting on blood lipid levels. Am J Med 2000;109:341–342.
  10. Khogheer Y, Sulaiman MI, Al-Fayez SF: Ramadan fasting state of controls. Ann Saudi Med 1987;7(suppl):5–6.
  11. Davidson JC: Muslims, Ramadan and diabetes mellitus. Br Med J 1979;ii:1511–1512.

    External Resources

  12. El-Hazmi MAF, Al-Faleh FZ, Al-Mofleh IB: Effect of Ramadan fasting on the values of hematological and biochemical parameters. Saudi Med J 1987;8:171–176.
  13. Gumaa KA, Mustafa KY, Mahmoud NA, Gader AM: The effect of fasting in Ramadan. 1. Serum uric acid and lipid concentration. Br J Nutr 1978;40:573–581.
  14. Fedail SS, Murphy D, Salih SY, Bolton CH, Harvey RF: Changes in certain blood constituents during Ramadan. Am J Clin Nutr 1982;36:350–353.
  15. Shoukry MI: Effect of fasting in Ramadan on plasma lipoproteins and apoproteins. Saudi Med J 1986;7:561–565.

    External Resources

  16. Hallak MH, Nomani MZA: Body weight loss and changes in blood lipid levels in normal men on hypocaloric diets during Ramadan fasting. Am J Clin Nutr 1988;48:1197–1210.
  17. Ziaee V, Razaei M, Ahmadinejad Z, Shaikh H, Yousefi R, Yarmohammadi L, Bozorgi F, Behjati MJ: The changes of metabolic profile and weight during Ramadan fasting. Singapore Med J 2006;47:409–414.
  18. Maislos M, Khamaysi N, Assali A, Abou-Rabiah Y, Zvili I, Shany S: Marked increase in plasma high-density lipoprotein cholesterol after prolonged fasting during Ramadan. Am J Clin Nutr 1993;57:640–642.
  19. Maislos M, Abou-Rabiah Y, Zuili I, Iordash S, Shany S: Gorging and plasma HDL-cholesterol – the Ramadan model. Eur J Clin Nutr 1998;52:127–130.
  20. Adlouni A, Ghalim N, Benslimane A, Lecery JM, Saile R: Fasting during Ramadan induces a marked increase in HDL and decrease in LDL-cholesterol. Ann Nutr Metab 1997;41:242–249.
  21. Salehi M, Neghab M: Effects of fasting and a medium calorie balanced diet during the holy month Ramadan on weight, BMI and some blood parameters of overweight males. Pak J Biol Sci 2007;10:968–971.
  22. Rahman M, Rashid M, Basher S, Sultana S, Nomani MZ: Improved serum HDL cholesterol profile among Bangladeshi male students during Ramadan fasting. East Mediterr Health J 2004;10:131–137.
  23. Bouhlel E, Salhi Z, Bouhlel H, Mdella S, Amamou A, Zaouali M, Mercier J, Bigard X, Tabka Z, Zbidi A, Shephard RJ: Effect of Ramadan fasting on fuel oxidation during exercise in trained male rugby players. Diabetes Metab 2006;32:617–624.
  24. Adlouni A, Ghalim N, Saile R, Hda N, Para HJ, Benslimane A: Beneficial effect of serum Apo A1, Apo B and LP A1 levels of Ramadan fasting. Clin Chim Acta 1998;271:179–189.
  25. Akanji AO, Mojiminiyi OA, Abdella N: Beneficial changes in serum Apo A-1 and its ratio Apo B and HDL in stable hyperlipidemia subjects after Ramadan fasting in Kuwait. Eur J Clin Nutr 2000;54:508–513.
  26. Gwinup G, Byron RC, Roush WH, et al: Effect of nibbling versus gorging on serum lipids in man. Am J Clin Nutr 1963;13:209–213.
  27. Kassab S, Abdul-Ghaffar T, Nagalla DS, Sachdeva U, Nayar U: Interactions between leptin, neuropeptide-Y and insulin with chronic diurnal fasting during Ramadan. Ann Saudi Med 2004;24:345–349.
  28. Bogdan A, Bouchareb B, Touitou Y: Response of circulating leptin to Ramadan daytime fasting: a circadian study. Br J Nutr 2005;93:515–518.
  29. Afrasiabi A, Hassanzadeh S, Sattarivand R, Nouri M, Mahbood S: Effects of low fat and low calorie diet on plasma lipid levels in the fasting month of Ramadan. Saudi Med J 2003;24:184–188.
  30. Fakhrzadeh H, Larijani B, Sanjari M, Baradar-Jalili R, Amini MR: Effect of Ramadan fasting on clinical and biochemical parameters in healthy adults. Ann Saudi Med 2003;23:223–226.
  31. Salti I, Bénard E, Detournay B, Bianchi-Biscay M, Le Brigand C, Voinet C, Jabbar A; EPIDIAR study group: A population-based study of diabetes and its characteristics during the fasting month of Ramadan in 13 countries: results of the epidemiology of diabetes and Ramadan 1422/2001 (EPIDIAR) study. Diabetes Care 2004;27:2306–2311.
  32. Al-Hader AFA, Abu-Farsakh NA, Khatib SY, Hasan ZA: The effects of Ramadan fasting on certain biochemical parameters in normal subjects and in type 2 diabetic patients. Ann Saudi Med 1994;14:139–141.
  33. Bekhadir J, El Ghomari H, Klöcker N, Mikou A, Sabri M: Muslims with non-insulin dependent diabetes fasting during Ramadan: treatment with glibenclamide. BMJ 1993;307:292–295.

    External Resources

  34. Chandalia HB, Bhargav A, Kataria V: Dietary pattern during Ramadan fasting and its effect on the metabolic control of diabetes. Pract Diabet Int 1987;4:287–290.

    External Resources

  35. Sulimani RA, Laajam M, Al-Attas O, Famuyiwa FO, Bashi S, Mekki MO, et al: The effect of Ramadan fasting on diabetes control in type II diabetic patients. Nutr Res 1991;11:261–264.

    External Resources

  36. Khatib FA, Shafagoj YA: Metabolic alterations as a result of Ramadan fasting in non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus patients in relation to food intake. Saudi Med J 2004;25:1858–1863.
  37. Laajam MA: Ramadan fasting and non-insulin-dependent diabetes: effect on metabolic control. East Afr Med J 1990;67:732–736.
  38. Salman H, Abdallah MA, AlHowasi M: Ramadan fasting in diabetic children in Riyadh. Diabetes Med 1992;9:583–584.
  39. Dehghan MR, Nafarabadi MT, Navai L, Azizi F: The effect of Ramadan fasting on blood glucose and lipids in type 2 diabetics. J Facult Med SBUMS 1994;18:42–47.
  40. Khaled BM, Bendahmane M, Belbraouet S: Ramadan fasting induces modifications of certain serum components in obese women with type 2 diabetes. Saudi Med J 2006;27:23–26.
  41. Ahmadani MY, Riaz M, Gul A, Waheed MI, Hydrie MZ, Hakeem R, Basit A: Clinical profile of fasting diabetic subjects during Ramadan. J Coll Physicians Surg Pak 2007;17:446–447.

    External Resources

  42. Cesur M, Corapcioglu D, Gursoy A, Gonen S, Ozduman M, Emral R, Uysal AR, Tonyukuk V, Yilmaz AE, Bayram F, Kamel N: A comparison of glycemic effects of glimepiride, repaglinide, and insulin glargine in type 2 diabetes mellitus during Ramadan fasting. Diabetes Res Clin Pract 2007;75:141–147.
  43. Mafauzy M, Mohammad WB, Anum MY, Zulkifli A, Ruhani AH: A study of fasting diabetic patients during the month of Ramadan. Med J Malaya 1990;45:14–17.
  44. Omar MAK, Motala AA: Fasting in Ramadan and the diabetic patient. Diabetes Care 1997;20:1925–1926.
  45. Azizi F, Siahkolah B: Ramadan fasting and diabetes mellitus. Int J Ramadan Fast Res 1998;2:6–10.
  46. Sulimani RA, Famuyiwa FO, Laajam M: Diabetes mellitus and Ramadan fasting: the need for a critical appraisal. Diabetes Med 1988;5:589–591.
  47. Al-Arouj M, Bouguerra R, Buse J, Hafez S, Hassanein M, Ibrahim MA, Ismail-Beigi F, El-Kebbi I, Khatib O, Kishawi S, Al-Madani A, Mishal AA, Al-Maskari M, Nakhi AB, Al-Rubean K: Recommendations for management of diabetes during Ramadan. Diabetes Care 2005;28:2305–2311.
  48. Mojaddid M, Hassanein M, Malik R: Prescribing in ethnic groups: Ramadan and diabetes-evidence based guidelines. Pract Diabet Int 2006;17:38–43.
  49. Bakiner O, Ertorer ME, Bozkirli E: Repaglinide plus single-dose insulin glargine: a safe regimen for low-risk type 2 diabetic patients who insist on fasting in Ramadan. Acta Diabetol 2009;46:63–65.
  50. Kadiri A, Al-Nakhi A, El-Ghazali S, et al: Treatment of type 1 diabetes with insulin lispro during Ramadan. Diabetes Med 2001;27:482–486.
  51. Bin-Abbas BS: Insulin pump therapy during Ramadan fasting in type 1 diabetic adolescents. Ann Saudi Med 2008;28:305–306.
  52. Shariatpanahi ZV, Shariatpanahi MV, Shahbazi S, Hossaini A, Abadi A: Effect of Ramadan fasting on some indices of insulin resistance and components of the metabolic syndrome in healthy male adults. Br J Nutr 2008;100:147–151.
  53. Yucel A, Degirmenci B, Acar M, Albayrak R, Haktanir A: The effect of fasting month of Ramadan on the abdominal fat distribution: assessment by computed tomography. Tohoku J Exp Med 2004;204:179–187.
  54. Theorell T, Kjelberg J, Patmblad J: Electrocardiographic changes during total energy deprivation (fasting). Acta Med Scand 1978;203:13–19.
  55. Al Suwaidi J, Bener A, Suliman A, Hajar R, Salam AM, Numan MT, Al Binali HA: A population based study of Ramadan fasting and acute coronary syndromes. Heart 2004;90:695–696.
  56. Bener A, Hamad A, Fares A, Al-Sayed HM, Al-Suwaidi J: Is there any effect of Ramadan fasting on stroke incidence? Singapore Med J 2006;47:404–408.
  57. Chamsi-Pasha H, Ahmed WH: The effect of fasting in Ramadan on patients with heart disease. Saudi Med J 2004;25:47–51.
  58. Al Suwaidi J, Zubaid M, Al-Mahmeed WA, Al-Rashdan I, Amin H, Bener A, Hadi HR, Helmy A, Hanifah M, Al-Binali HA: Impact of fasting in Ramadan in patients with cardiac disease. Saudi Med J 2005;26:1579–1583.
  59. Temizhan A, Donderici O, Ouz D, Demirbas B: Is there any effect of Ramadan fasting on acute coronary health disease events? Int J Cardiol 1999;31:149–153.

    External Resources

  60. Duncan MT, Husain R, Raman A, Cheah SH, Ch’ng SL: Ventilatory function in Malay Muslims during normal activity and the Ramadan fast. Singapore Med J 1990;31:543–547.
  61. Siddiqui QA, Sabir S, Subhan MM: The effect of Ramadan fasting on spirometry in healthy subjects. Respirology 2005;10:525–528.
  62. Subhan MM, Siddiqui QA, Khan MN, Sabir S: Does Ramadan fasting affect expiratory flow rates in healthy subjects? Saudi Med J 2006;27:1656–1660.
  63. Rashed AH: The fast of Ramadan. No problems for the well: the sick should avoid fasting. BMJ 1992;302:521–522.

    External Resources

  64. Sana SK: Cyclic motor activity, migrating motor complex. Gastroenterology 1985;89:894–899.

    External Resources

  65. Ellenbogen S, Jenkins SA, Grime JS, Critchley M, Mackie CR, Baxter JN: Preduodenal mechanisms in initiating gallbladder emptying in man. Br J Surg 1988;75:940–945.
  66. Hosseini SV, Torabijahromi M, Mosallaei M, Sabet B, Pourahmad S: The effect of season and Ramadan fasting on the onset of acute cholecystitis. Saudi Med J 2006;27:503–506.
  67. Donderici O, Temizhan A, Kucukbas T, Eskioglu E: Effect of Ramadan on peptic ulcer complications. Scand J Gastroenterol 1994;7:603–606.

    External Resources

  68. Mehdi A, Ajmi S: Effect of the observance of diurnal fast of Ramadan on duodenal ulcer healing with lansoprazole. Results of a prospective controlled study (in French). Gastroentrol Clin Biol 1997;21:820–822.
  69. Barret PVD: Effects of caloric and noncaloric materials in fasting hyperbilirubinemia. Gastroenterology 1975;68:361–369.
  70. Owens D, Sherlock S: Diagnosis of Gilbert’s syndrome: role of reduced caloric intake test. Br Med J 1973;iii:559–563.

    External Resources

  71. Cheah SH, Ch’ng SL, Hussein R, Ducan MT: Effects of fasting during Ramadan on urinary excretion in Malaysian Muslims. Br J Nutr 1990;63:329–337.
  72. Sliman NA, Khatib FA: Effect of fasting Ramadan on body weight and some blood constituents of healthy Muslims. Nutr Rep Int 1988;38:1299–1306.
  73. Murphy R, Shipman KH: Hyperuricemia during total fasts. Arch Intern Med 1963;112:659–662.
  74. Azizi F, Amir Rasouli H: Evaluation of certain hormones and blood constituents during Islamic fasting month. J Med Assoc Thailand 1986;69(suppl):57A.
  75. Leiper JB, Molla AM, Molla AM: Effects on health of fluid restriction during fasting in Ramadan. Eur J Clin Nutr 2003;57:S30–S38.
  76. Kerndt PR, Naughton JL, Driscoll C, Loxterkamp DA: Fasting: the history, pathophysiology and complications. West J Med 1982;137:379–399.
  77. El-Wakil HS, Desoky I, Lotfy N, Adam AG: Fasting the month of Ramadan by Muslims: could it be injurious to their kidneys? Saudi J Kidney Dis Transpl 2007;18:349–354.

    External Resources

  78. Gifford JD, Rutsky EA, Kirk KA, McDaniel HG: Control of serum potassium during fasting in patient with end stage renal disease. Kidney Int 1989;35:90–94.
  79. Al-Khader AA, Al-Hasani M, Dhar JM, Al-Sulaiman M: Effect of diet during Ramadan on patients on chronic haemodialysis. Saudi Med J 1991;12:30–31.
  80. Argani H, Mozaffari S, Rahnama B, Rahbani M, Rejaie M, Ghafari A: Evaluation of biochemical and immunologic changes in renal transplant recipients during Ramadan fasting. Transplant Proc 2003;35:2725–2726.
  81. Einollahi B, Lessan-Pezeshki M, Simforoosh N, Nafar M, Pour-Reza-Gholi F, Firouzan A, Khatami MR, Nourbala MH, Pourfarzini V: Impact of Ramadan fasting on renal allograft function. Transplant Proc 2005;37:3004–3005.
  82. Abdalla AH, Shaheen FA, Rassoul Z: Effect of Ramadan fasting on Muslim kidney transplant recipients. Am J Nephrol 1998;18:101–104.
  83. Ghalib M, Qureshi J, Tamim H, Ghamdi G, Flaiw A, Hejaili F, Taher S, Katheri A, Shaheen F, Al-Khader AA: Does repeated Ramadan fasting adversely affect kidney function in renal transplant patients? Transplantation 2008;85:141–144.
  84. Einollahi B, Lessan-Pezeshki M, Pourfarziani V, Aghdam B, Rouzbeh J, Ghadiani MH, Nemati E: Ramadan fasting in kidney transplant recipients with normal renal function and with mild-to-moderate renal dysfunction. Int Urol Nephrol 2009;41:417–422.
  85. Al-Hadramy MS: Seasonal variations of urinary stone colic in Arabia. J Pak Med Assoc 1997;47:281–284.
  86. Basiri A, Moghaddam SM, Khoddam R, Nejad ST, Hakimi A: Monthly variations of urinary stone colic in Iran and its relationship to the fasting month of Ramadan. J Pak Med Assoc 2004;54:6–8.
  87. Indriss BA, Anas BM, Hicham T: Influence of fasting during Ramadan on intra-ocular pressure. Ann Saudi Med 2008;28:61.
  88. Owen OE, Morgan AP, Kemp HG, et al: Brain metabolism during fasting. J Clin Invest 1967;46:1589–1595.
  89. Drenick EJ: Weight reduction by prolonged fasting; in Bray GA (ed): Obesity in Perspective. Fogarty International Center Series on Preventive Medicine. Washington, US Government Printing Office, 1975, vol II, parts I and II.
  90. Duncan GG, Jenson WK, Cristofori FC, Schless GL: Intermittent fast in the correction and control of intractable obesity. Am J Med Sci 1963;245:515–520.

    External Resources

  91. Gambert SR, Grathwaite TL, Pontzer CH, et al: Fasting associated with decrease in hypothalamic β-endorphin. Science 1980;210:1271–1272.
  92. Taoudi M, Rocky R, Toufiq J, Benaji B, Hakkou F: Epidemiological study: chronotype and daytime sleepiness before and during Ramadan. Therapie 1999;54:567–572.

    External Resources

  93. Roky R, Chapotot F, Benchekroun MT, Benaji B, Hakkou F, Elkhalifi H, Buguet A: Daytime sleepiness during Ramadan intermittent fasting: polysomnographic and quantitative waking EEG study. J Sleep Res 2003;12:95–101.
  94. Cono J, Cragan JD, Jamieson DJ, Rasmussen SA: Prophylaxis and treatment of pregnant women for emerging infections and bioterrorism emergencies. Emerg Infect Dis 2006;12:1631–1637.
  95. Roky R, Iraki L, Hajikhlifa R, Ghazal N, Hakkou F: Daytime alertness, mood, psychomotor performances, and oral temperature during Ramadan fasting. Ann Nutr Metab 2000;44:101–107.
  96. Kordy MT, Abdel AM: The effect of fasting in Ramadan on hemostatic variables. Ann Saudi Med 1991;11:23–27.
  97. Daradkeh TK: Parasuicide during Ramadan in Jordan. Acta Psychiatr Scand 1992;3:253–254.

    External Resources

  98. Awada A, Jumah M: The first-of-Ramadan headache. Headache 1999;39:490–493.
  99. Sajid KM, Akhtar M, Malik GQ: Ramadan fasting and thyroid hormone profile. J Pak Med Assoc 1991;41:213–216.
  100. Takruri HR: Effect of fasting in Ramadan on body weight. Saudi Med J 1989;10:491–494.

    External Resources

  101. Sulimani RA: Effect of Ramadan fasting on thyroid function in healthy male individuals. Nutr Res 1988;8:549–552.

    External Resources

  102. Azizi F, Nafarabadi M, Amini M: Serum thyroid hormone and thyrotropin concentrations during Ramadan in healthy women. Emirates Med J 1994;12:140–143.
  103. Azizi F: Serum levels of prolactin, thyrotropin, thyroid hormones, TRH responsiveness and male reproductive function in intermittent Islamic fasting. Med J IR Iran 1991;5:145–148.
  104. Azizi F: Effect of dietary composition on fasting induced changes in serum thyroid hormones and thyrotropin. Metabolism 1978;27:935–945.
  105. Borst GC, Osburne RC, O’Brian JT, Georges LP, Burman KD: Fasting decreases thyrotropin responsiveness to thyrotropin-releasing hormone: a potential cause of misinterpretation of thyroid function test in the critically ill. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1983;57:380–383.
  106. Spencer CA, Lum SM, Wilber JF, Kapten EM, Nicoloff JT: Dynamics of serum thyrotropin and thyroid hormone changes in fasting. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1983;56:883–888.
  107. Suryanarayana BV, Kent JR, Meister L, Parlow AF: Pituitary-gonadal axis during prolonged total starvation in obese men. Am J Clin Nutr 1969;22:767–770.
  108. Klibanski, A, Beitins IZ, Badger T, Little R, McArthur JW: Reproductive function during fasting in man. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1981;53:258–263.
  109. Mesbahzadeh B, Ghiravani Z, Mehrjoofard H: Effect of Ramadan fasting on secretion of sex hormones in healthy single males. East Mediterr Health J 2005;11:1120–1123.
  110. Carlson HE, Drenick EJ, Chopra IJ, Hershman JM: Alterations in basal and TRH-stimulated serum levels of thyrotropin, prolactin, and thyroid hormones in starved obese men. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1977;45:707–713.
  111. Al-Hadramy MS, Zawawi TH, Abdelwahab SM: Altered cortisol levels in relation to Ramadan. Eur J Clin Nutr 1988;42:359–362.
  112. Bogdan A, Bouchareb B, Touitou Y: Ramadan fasting alters endocrine and neuroendocrine circadian patterns. Meal-time as a synchronizer in humans? Life Sci 2001;68:1607–1615.
  113. Haouari M, Haouari-Oukerro F, Sfaxi A, Ben Rayana MC, Kâabachi N, Mbazâa A: How Ramadan fasting affects caloric consumption, body weight, and circadian evolution of cortisol serum levels in young, healthy male volunteers. Horm Metab Res 2008;40:575–577.
  114. Tyson JE, Austin K, Farinholt J: Endocrine-metabolic response to acute starvation in human gestation. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1976;125:1073–1076.
  115. Simmons MA, Meschia G, Makowski EL, Battaglia FC: Fetal metabolic response to maternal starvation. Pediatr Res 1974;8:830–835.
  116. Malhotra A, Scott PH, Scott J, Gee H, Wharton BA: Metabolic changes in Asian Muslim pregnant mothers observing the Ramadan fast in Britain. Br J Nutr 1989;61:663–712.
  117. Kavehmanesh Z, Abolghasemi H: Maternal Ramadan fasting and neonatal health. J Perinatol 2004;24:748–750.
  118. Dikensoy E, Balat O, Cebesoy B, Ozkur A, Cicek H, Can G: The effect of Ramadan fasting on maternal serum lipids, cortisol levels and fetal development. Arch Gynecol Obstet 2009;279:119–123.
  119. Prentice AM, Prentice A, Lamb WH, Lunn PG, Austin S: Metabolic consequences of fasting during Ramadan in pregnant and lactating women. Hum Nutr Clin Nutr 1983;37:283–294.
  120. Naderi T, Kamyabi Z: Determination of fundal height increases in fasting and non-fasting pregnant women during Ramadan. Saudi Med J 2004;25:809–810.
  121. Cross JH, Eminson J, Wharton BA: Ramadan and birth weight at full term in Asian Moslem pregnant women in Birmingham. Arch Dis Child 1990;65:1053–1056.
  122. Kamyabi Z, Naderi T: The effect of Ramadan fasting on amniotic fluid volume. Saudi Med J 2004;25:45–46.
  123. Dikensoy E, Balat O, Cebesoy B, Ozkur A, Cicek H, Can G: Effect of fasting during Ramadan on fetal development and maternal health. J Obstet Gynaecol Res 2008;34:494–498.
  124. Azizi F, Sadehipour H, Siahkolah B, Rezaei-Ghaleh N: Intellectual development of children born of mothers who fasted in Ramadan during pregnancy. Int J Vitam Nutr Res 2004;74:374–380.
  125. Prentice AM, Lamb WH, Prentice A, Coward WA: The effect of water abstention on milk synthesis in lactating women. Clin Sci 1984;66:291–298.
  126. Habib AG, Shepherd JC, Eng MK, Babashani M, Jumare J, Yakubu U, Gebi UI, Saad M, Ibrahim H, Blattner WA: Adherence to anti retroviral therapy (ART) during Muslim Ramadan fasting. AIDS Behav 2009;13:42–45.
  127. Crosby SS, Rourke EJ, Warfa MA: Fasting and medical issues during Ramadan. JAMA 2005;294:1618.
  128. Azizi F: Fegh va Tebb. Tehran, Daftar Nashr Farhang Eslami, 1992, pp 29–32.
  129. Aslam M, Wilson JV: Clinical problems during the fast of Ramadan. Lancet 1989;ii:955.

    External Resources

  130. Cocks DA, Critchley EMR, Hayward HW, et al: Control of epilepsy with a single daily dose of phenytoin sodium. Br J Clin Pharmacol 1975;2:449–453.
  131. Garcia-Bunuel L: Clinical problems during the fast of Ramadan. Lancet 1989;ii:396.
  132. Saour JN, Sieck JO, Khan M, Mammo L: Does Ramadan fasting complicate anticoagulation therapy. Ann Saudi Med 1989;9:538–540.

    External Resources

  133. Al-Haider AA, Al-Balaa SR: Effects of short-term use of piroxicam and ketoprofen (sustained release) on renal function during Ramadan fasting. 4th Drug Symp Proc, Riyadh, January 1989.

 goto top of outline Author Contacts

Prof. Fereidoun Azizi, MD
Endocrine Research Center, Research Institute for Endocrine Sciences
Shaheed Beheshti University of Medical Sciences
PO Box 19395-4763, Tehran (I.R. Iran)
Tel. +98 21 2240 9309, Fax +98 21 2240 2463, E-Mail azizi@endocrine.ac.ir


 goto top of outline Article Information

Received: June 9, 2009
Accepted after revision: March 3, 2010
Published online: April 24, 2010
Number of Print Pages : 10
Number of Figures : 0, Number of Tables : 1, Number of References : 133


 goto top of outline Publication Details

Annals of Nutrition and Metabolism (Journal of Nutrition, Metabolic Diseases and Dietetics)

Vol. 56, No. 4, Year 2010 (Cover Date: June 2010)

Journal Editor: Elmadfa I. (Vienna)
ISSN: 0250-6807 (Print), eISSN: 1421-9697 (Online)

For additional information: http://www.karger.com/ANM


Copyright / Drug Dosage

Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher or, in the case of photocopying, direct payment of a specified fee to the Copyright Clearance Center.
Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in goverment regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug.
Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.