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Cover

Anaphylaxis

Editor(s): Ring J. (Munich) 
Table of Contents
Vol. 95, No. , 2010
Section title: History and Epidemiology
Ring J (ed): Anaphylaxis. Chem Immunol Allergy. Basel, Karger, 2010, vol 95, pp 1–11
(DOI:10.1159/000315934)

History and Classification of Anaphylaxis

Ring J. · Behrendt H. · de Weck A.
Department of Dermatology and Allergy Biederstein, ZAUM – Zentrum Allergie und Umwelt, Helmholtz Zentrum München/Technische Universität München, Munich, Germany, and Universidad de Navarra, Pamplona, Spain

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Article / Publication Details

First-Page Preview
Abstract of History and Epidemiology

Published online: June 01, 2010
Cover Date: 2010

Number of Print Pages: 11
Number of Figures: 0
Number of Tables: 0

ISBN: 978-3-8055-9441-7 (Print)
eISBN: 978-3-8055-9442-4 (Online)

Abstract

Anaphylaxis as the maximal variant of an acute systemic hypersensitivity reaction can involve several organ systems, particularly the skin, respiratory tract, gastrointestinal tract and the cardiovascular system. The severity of anaphylactic reaction is variable and can be classified into severity grades I–IV. Some reactions are fatal. Most frequent elicitors of anaphylaxis are foods in childhood, later insect stings and drugs. The phenomenon itself has been described in ancient medical literature, but was actually recognized and named at the beginning of the 20th century by Charles Richet and Paul Portier. In the course of experiments starting on the yacht of the Prince of Monaco and continued in the laboratory in Paris, they tried to immunize dogs with extracts of Physalia species in an attempt to develop an antitoxin to the venom of the Portuguese man-of-war. While Charles Richet believed that anaphylaxis was a ‘lack of protection’, it has become clear that an exaggerated immune reaction, especially involving immunoglobulin E antibodies, is the underlying pathomechanism in allergic anaphylaxis besides immune complex reactions. Non-immunologically mediated reactions leading to similar clinical symptomatology have been called ‘anaphylactoid’ or ‘pseudo-allergic’ – especially by Paul Kallos – and are now called ‘non-immune anaphylaxis’ according to a consensus of the World Allergy Organization (WAO). The distinction of different pathophysiological processes is important since non-immune anaphylaxis cannot be detected by skin test or in vitro allergy diagnostic procedures. History and provocation tests are crucial. The intensity of the reaction is not only influenced by the degree of sensitization but also by concomitant other factors as age, simultaneous exposure to other allergens, underlying infection, physical exercise or psychological stress or concomitant medication (e.g. Β-blockers, NSAIDs); this phenomenon has been called augmentation or summation anaphylaxis.

© 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel


Article / Publication Details

First-Page Preview
Abstract of History and Epidemiology

Published online: June 01, 2010
Cover Date: 2010

Number of Print Pages: 11
Number of Figures: 0
Number of Tables: 0

ISBN: 978-3-8055-9441-7 (Print)
eISBN: 978-3-8055-9442-4 (Online)


Copyright / Drug Dosage / Disclaimer

Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher or, in the case of photocopying, direct payment of a specified fee to the Copyright Clearance Center.
Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug.
Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.