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Vol. 76, No. 2, 2010
Issue release date: November 2010
Section title: Original Paper
Brain Behav Evol 2010;76:154–162
(DOI:10.1159/000320968)

Extensive Changes in the Expression of the Opioid Genes between Humans and Chimpanzees

Cruz-Gordillo P.a · Fedrigo O.a · Wray G.A.a, b · Babbitt C.C.a
aDepartment of Biology and Institute for Genome Sciences & Policy, and bDepartment of Evolutionary Anthropology, Duke University, Durham, N.C., USA

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Article / Publication Details

First-Page Preview
Abstract of Original Paper

Received: 5/2/2010
Accepted: 8/30/2010
Published online: 11/15/2010
Issue release date: November 2010

Number of Print Pages: 9
Number of Figures: 2
Number of Tables: 1

ISSN: 0006-8977 (Print)
eISSN: 1421-9743 (Online)

For additional information: http://www.karger.com/BBE

Abstract

The various means by which the body perceives, transmits, and resolves the experiences of pain and nociception are mediated by a host of molecules, including neuropeptides within the opioid gene signaling pathway. The peptide ligands and receptors encoded by this group of genes have been linked to behavioral disorders as well as a number of psychiatric affective disorders. Our aim was to explore the recent evolutionary history of these two gene families by taking a comparative genomics approach, specifically through a comparison between humans and chimpanzees. Our analyses indicate differential expression of these genes between the two species, more than expected based on genome-wide comparisons, indicating that differential expression is pervasive among the opioid genes. Of the 8 family members, three genes showed significant expression differences (PENK, PNOC, and OPRL1), with two others marginally significant (OPRM1 and OPRD1). Accelerated substitution rates along human and chimpanzee lineages within the putative regulatory regions of OPRM1, POMC, and PDYN between the human and chimpanzee branches are consistent with positive selection. Collectively, these results suggest that there may have been a selective advantage to modulating the expression of the opioid genes in humans compared with our closest living relatives. Information about the cognitive roles mediated by these genes in humans may help to elucidate the trait consequences of these putatively adaptive expression changes.

© 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel


  

Author Contacts

Courtney C. Babbitt
Department of Biology and Institute for Genome Science and Policy
Duke University, Box 90038
Durham, NC 27708 (USA)
Tel. +1 919 684 6249, Fax +1 919 660 2793, E-Mail courtney.babbitt@duke.edu

  

Article Information

Received: May 2, 2010
Accepted after revision: August 30, 2010
Returned for revision: June 4, 2010
Published online: November 15, 2010
Number of Print Pages : 9
Number of Figures : 2, Number of Tables : 1, Number of References : 79
Additional supplementary material is available online - Number of Parts : 2

  

Publication Details

Brain, Behavior and Evolution

Vol. 76, No. 2, Year 2010 (Cover Date: November 2010)

Journal Editor: Striedter G.F. (Irvine, Calif.)
ISSN: 0006-8977 (Print), eISSN: 1421-9743 (Online)

For additional information: http://www.karger.com/BBE


Article / Publication Details

First-Page Preview
Abstract of Original Paper

Received: 5/2/2010
Accepted: 8/30/2010
Published online: 11/15/2010
Issue release date: November 2010

Number of Print Pages: 9
Number of Figures: 2
Number of Tables: 1

ISSN: 0006-8977 (Print)
eISSN: 1421-9743 (Online)

For additional information: http://www.karger.com/BBE


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