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Review of Dairy Consumption and Cognitive Performance in Adults: Findings and Methodological IssuesCrichton G.E.a · Bryan J.a, b · Murphy K.J.a · Buckley J.a
aNutritional Physiology Research Centre, Sansom Institute for Health Research, and bSchool of Psychology, University of South Australia, Adelaide, S.A., Australia Corresponding Author
Nutritional Physiology Research Centre, University of South Australia
GPO Box 2471, Adelaide, SA 5001 (Australia)
Tel. +61 8 8302 1452, Fax +61 8 8302 2178
Background: Diet is a modifiable factor that could be targeted as an appropriate intervention to optimise cognitive health and well-being in ageing. Aim: The aim of this systematic review was to consider current evidence for an association between dairy intake and cognitive functioning. Methods: Searches of the electronic databases Medline, Embase, Web of Science, CINAHL, and PsychInfo were undertaken to identify peer-reviewed journal articles that reported on associations between dairy consumption and cognitive outcomes. Results: Three cross-sectional and 5 prospective studies were identified. Poorer cognitive function and an increased risk for vascular dementia were found to be associated with a lower consumption of milk or dairy products. However, the consumption of whole-fat dairy products may be associated with cognitive decline in the elderly. Conclusion: Methodological variability and study limitations do not enable conclusions regarding optimal dairy intake and cognitive performance to be drawn. Randomised controlled trials are needed to confirm the relationship between dairy intake and cognition.
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