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Table of Contents
Vol. 3, No. 1, 2011
Issue release date: December 2010
Section title: Review
Free Access
J Innate Immun 2011;3:17–27

The Primary Role of Fibrinogen-Related Proteins in Invertebrates Is Defense, Not Coagulation

Hanington P.C. · Zhang S.-M.
Center for Evolutionary and Theoretical Immunology, Department of Biology, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, N. Mex., USA
email Corresponding Author

Dr. Si-Ming Zhang

Center for Evolutionary and Theoretical Immunology

Department of Biology, MSC03 2020, University of New Mexico

Albuquerque, NM 87131 (USA)

Tel. +1 505 277 4589, Fax +1 505 277 0304, E-Mail zhangsm@unm.edu

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In vertebrates, the conversion of fibrinogen into fibrin is an essential process that underlies the establishment of the supporting protein framework required for coagulation. In invertebrates, fibrinogen-domain-containing proteins play a role in the defense response generated against pathogens; however, they do not function in coagulation, suggesting that this role has been recently acquired. Molecules containing fibrinogen motifs have been identified in numerous invertebrate organisms, and most of these molecules known to date have been linked to defense. Moreover, recent genome projects of invertebrate animals have revealed surprisingly high numbers of fibrinogen-like loci in their genomes, suggesting important and perhaps diverse functions of fibrinogen-like proteins in invertebrates. The ancestral role of molecules containing fibrinogen-related domains (FReDs) with immunity is the focus of this review, with emphasis on specific FReDs called fibrinogen-related proteins (FREPs) identified from the schistosome-transmitting mollusc Biomphalaria glabrata. Herein, we outline the range of invertebrate organisms FREPs can be found in, and detail the roles these molecules play in defense and protection against infection.

© 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel

Article / Publication Details

First-Page Preview
Abstract of Review

Received: August 31, 2010
Accepted: October 08, 2010
Published online: November 09, 2010
Issue release date: December 2010

Number of Print Pages: 11
Number of Figures: 1
Number of Tables: 1

ISSN: 1662-811X (Print)
eISSN: 1662-8128 (Online)

For additional information: http://www.karger.com/JIN

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