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Vol. 29, No. 2, 2011
Issue release date: July 2011
Section title: The Liver as a Target
Dig Dis 2011;29:184–190
(DOI:10.1159/000323884)

Infections and the Liver

Eksteen B.
Centre for Liver Research, MRC Centre for Immune Regulation, Institute for Biomedical Research, Medical School, University of Birmingham, and The Queen Elizabeth Hospital, University Hospitals Birmingham NHS Trust, Birmingham, UK

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Article / Publication Details

First-Page Preview
Abstract of The Liver as a Target

Published online: 7/5/2011

Number of Print Pages: 7
Number of Figures: 3
Number of Tables: 1

ISSN: 0257-2753 (Print)
eISSN: 1421-9875 (Online)

For additional information: http://www.karger.com/DDI

Abstract

Background: Hepatitis B (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) have infected nearly half a billion individuals worldwide and are major indications for liver transplantation. Key requirements to successful outcomes with modern antiviral drugs are favourable host factors. Results: Single nucleotide polymorphisms near the IL28B gene location which encode for interferon (IFN)-λ3 have a large effect in determining the likelihood of patients obtaining a cure from pegylated IFN-α and ribavirin combination therapy or spontaneous clearance of the HCV. 80% of patients who carry two copies of this advantageous variant cleared the virus during IFN therapy and remained virus-free with a sustained viral response. This mutation is more common in Caucasian and Asian populations, whereas it is only found in the 40–50% of sub-Saharan Africans who are known to be more resistant to combination therapy. Similarly, host factors control tolerance to chronic HBV infection and can fluctuate over time with increased risk of progression to cirrhosis and particularly liver cancer. Loss of viral tolerance with reactivation and hepatitis is increasingly seen with the widespread use of biological treatments for diseases such as inflammatory bowel disease or rheumatoid arthritis. Natural disasters and conflicts in some parts of the world have also seen an increase in cases of hepatitis A and E virus infection and highlighted the global public health burden from viral-induced hepatitis. Conclusions: Increased appreciation of the interaction between host factors and the viral life cycles is likely to significantly alter the way we target these infections in the future.


  

Author Contacts

Dr. Bertus Eksteen
Centre for Liver Research and NIHR Biomedical Research Unit
MRC Centre for Immune Regulation, Institute for Biomedical Research
University of Birmingham, Vincent Drive, Edgbaston, Birmingham B15 2TT (UK)
Tel. +44 121 415 8700, E-Mail b.eksteen@bham.ac.uk

  

Article Information

Number of Print Pages : 7
Number of Figures : 3, Number of Tables : 1, Number of References : 61

  

Publication Details

Digestive Diseases (Clinical Reviews)

Vol. 29, No. 2, Year 2011 (Cover Date: July 2011)

Journal Editor: Malfertheiner P. (Magdeburg)
ISSN: 0257-2753 (Print), eISSN: 1421-9875 (Online)

For additional information: http://www.karger.com/DDI


Article / Publication Details

First-Page Preview
Abstract of The Liver as a Target

Published online: 7/5/2011

Number of Print Pages: 7
Number of Figures: 3
Number of Tables: 1

ISSN: 0257-2753 (Print)
eISSN: 1421-9875 (Online)

For additional information: http://www.karger.com/DDI


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