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Vol. 156, No. 3, 2011
Issue release date: October 2011
Section title: Original Paper
Int Arch Allergy Immunol 2011;156:339–348
(DOI:10.1159/000323907)

Protective and Risk Factors for Allergic Diseases in High-Risk Children at the Ages of Two and Five Years

Sandini U.a · Kukkonen A.K.b · Poussa T.c · Sandini L.a · Savilahti E.a · Kuitunen M.b
aHospital for Children and Adolescents and bSkin and Allergy Hospital, Helsinki University Central Hospital, Helsinki, and cSTAT Consulting, Nokia, Finland

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Article / Publication Details

First-Page Preview
Abstract of Original Paper

Received: 2/2/2010
Accepted: 12/27/2010
Published online: 6/29/2011
Issue release date: October 2011

Number of Print Pages: 10
Number of Figures: 1
Number of Tables: 6

ISSN: 1018-2438 (Print)
eISSN: 1423-0097 (Online)

For additional information: http://www.karger.com/IAA

Abstract

Background: Environmental and lifestyle factors such as breast-feeding and pets seem to affect atopic disease prevalence. We identified risk factors for allergic diseases. Methods: We prospectively followed until the age of 5 years a cohort of 1,223 children born into allergic families, who participated in a randomized placebo-controlled trial of probiotics as preventive against allergic disease. We evaluated the cumulative incidence of allergic diseases with questionnaires and examined all children at the ages of 2 and 5 years. Results: Compared to allergy in one parent only, allergy in both parents conferred an increased risk of allergic disease at the ages of 2 (OR 1.64; 95% CI 1.11–2.42, p = 0.013) and 5 (OR 1.83; 95% CI 1.24–2.70, p = 0.002) and at the age of 2 for eczema (OR 1.74; 95% CI 1.17–2.58, p = 0.006). Exclusive breast-feeding over 2 months elevated the risk of eczema at the ages of 2 (OR 1.73; 95% CI 1.15–2.61, p = 0.009) and 5 (OR 1.51; 95% CI 1.03–2.23, p = 0.036). Cat or dog exposure at 0–2 years and at 0–5 years protected against IgE sensitization until 5 years of age (OR 0.60; 95% CI 0.37–1.00, p = 0.048, and OR 0.61; 95% CI 0.39–0.96, p = 0.033), and exposure at the ages of 0–5 years protected against allergic rhinitis until the age of 5 (OR 0.46; 95% CI 0.25–0.85, p = 0.013) in the probiotic group. Conclusions: Allergy in both parents is an independent predictor of eczema and of allergic disease until the ages of 2 and 5. Long, exclusive breast-feeding was associated with increased eczema at the ages of 2 and 5, and cat or dog exposure was associated with decreased IgE sensitization and allergic rhinitis in the probiotic group.

© 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel


  

Author Contacts

Correspondence to: Dr. Mikael Kuitunen
Skin and Allergy Hospital, Helsinki University Central Hospital
PO Box 160
FI–00029 Helsinki (Finland)
Tel. +358 50428 6291, E-Mail mikael.kuitunen@hus.fi

  

Article Information

Received: February 2, 2010
Accepted after revision: December 27, 2010
Published online: June 29, 2011
Number of Print Pages : 10
Number of Figures : 1, Number of Tables : 6, Number of References : 40

  

Publication Details

International Archives of Allergy and Immunology

Vol. 156, No. 3, Year 2011 (Cover Date: October 2011)

Journal Editor: Valenta R. (Vienna)
ISSN: 1018-2438 (Print), eISSN: 1423-0097 (Online)

For additional information: http://www.karger.com/IAA


Article / Publication Details

First-Page Preview
Abstract of Original Paper

Received: 2/2/2010
Accepted: 12/27/2010
Published online: 6/29/2011
Issue release date: October 2011

Number of Print Pages: 10
Number of Figures: 1
Number of Tables: 6

ISSN: 1018-2438 (Print)
eISSN: 1423-0097 (Online)

For additional information: http://www.karger.com/IAA


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Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in goverment regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug.
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