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Effects of Zinc and Fluoride on the Remineralisation of Artificial Carious Lesions under Simulated Plaque Fluid ConditionsLynch R.J.M.a, d · Churchley D.a · Butler A.a · Kearns S.b · Thomas G.V.c · Badrock T.C.c · Cooper L.d · Higham S.M.d
aGlaxoSmithKline, Weybridge, bDepartment of Earth Sciences, University of Bristol, Bristol, cIntertek 4-Front, Chester, and dUniversity of Liverpool, Liverpool, UK
The aim was to study the effects of zinc (Zn) and fluoride (F) on remineralisation at plaque fluid concentrations. Artificial carious lesions were created in 2 acid-gel demineralising systems (initially infinitely undersaturated and partially saturated with respect to enamel) giving lesions with different mineral distribution characteristics (high and low R values, respectively) but similar integrated mineral loss values. Lesions of both types were assigned to 1 of 4 groups and remineralised for 5 days at 37°C. Zn and F were added, based on plaque fluid concentrations 1 h after application, to give 4 treatments: 231 µmol/l Zn, 10.5 µmol/l F, Zn/F combined and an unmodified control solution (non-F/non-Zn). Subsequently remineralisation was measured using microradiography. High-R lesions were analysed for calcium, phosphorus, F and Zn using electron probe micro-analysis. All lesions underwent statistically significant remineralisation. For low-R lesions, remineralisation was in the order Fa < non-F/non-Zna < Zna, b < Zn/Fb, and for high-R lesions Fa < non-F/non-Znb < Znb < Zn/Fc (treatments with the same superscript letter not significantly different, at p < 0.05). Qualitatively, remineralisation occurred throughout non-F/non-Zn and Zn groups, predominantly at the surface zone (F) and within the lesion body (Zn/F). Electron probe micro-analysis revealed Zn in relatively large amounts in the outer regions (Zn, Zn/F). F was abundant not only at the surface (F), but also in the lesion body (Zn/F). Calcium:phosphate ratios were similar to hydroxyapatite (all). To conclude, under static remineralising conditions simulating plaque fluid, Zn/F treatment gave significantly greater remineralisation than did F treatment, possibly because Zn in the Zn/F group maintained greater surface zone porosity compared with F, facilitating greater lesion body remineralisation.
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