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Vitamin D and Vascular Calcification in Chronic Kidney DiseaseRodriguez M. · Martinez-Moreno J.M. · Rodríguez-Ortiz M.E. · Muñoz-Castañeda J.R. · Almaden Y.
Unidad de Investigación, Servicio de Nefrología, Red in ren, Instituto Maimónides de Investigación Biomédica de Córdoba, Departamento de Medicina, Hospital Universitario Reina Sofia, Córdoba, España Corresponding Author
Dr. Mariano Rodríguez
Unidad de Investigación, Hospital Reina Sofía
Avenida Menéndez Pidal s/n
ES–14004 Córdoba (Spain)
Tel. +34 95 701 0440, E-Mail firstname.lastname@example.org
Vascular calcification is common in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) and contributes to the increased rate of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. The mechanisms regulating vascular calcification are under investigation; it is accepted that vascular calcification is an active and complex process involving many factors that promote or inhibit calcification. Vascular smooth muscle cells undergo transformation into osteogenic cells. This transformation is being stimulated by high phosphate, and more recently the role of the calcium phosphate nanocrystals has gained attention. Experimental models of uremia and in vitro studies have shown that an excess of calcitriol accelerates vascular calcification. However, observational studies suggest that vitamin D provides a survival advantage for patients with CKD. Experimental work shows that for similar serum concentrations of calcium and phosphate paricalcitol produces less vascular calcification than calcitriol suggesting a differential effect at the cellular level. Important issues regarding the role of vitamin D compounds on vascular calcification will be commented in this review.
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