Distribution of Bacteria in the Epidermal Layers and Hair Follicles of the Human SkinLange-Asschenfeldt B.a, b · Marenbach D.c · Lang C.d · Patzelt A.c · Ulrich M.b · Maltusch A.a, b · Terhorst D.a, b · Stockfleth E.b · Sterry W.a–c · Lademann J.c
aWound Care Center, bSkin Cancer Center and cCenter of Experimental and Applied Cutaneous Physiology, Department of Dermatology and Allergology, Charité-Universitätsmedizin Berlin, and dOrganoBalance GmbH, Berlin, Germany
Do you have an account?
- Rent for 48h to view
- Buy Cloud Access for unlimited viewing via different devices
- Synchronizing in the ReadCube Cloud
- Printing and saving restrictions apply
Rental: USD 8.50
Cloud: USD 20.00
Article / Publication Details
Previous studies over recent years have revealed the presence of a resident bacterial population in the human skin throughout the entire body. However, the localization and composition of the bacteria within the epidermis and the skin appendages have not been fully investigated. Using differential tape stripping, cyanoacrylate skin surface biopsies and mapping of hair follicles, bacteria on the forearms of study participants were isolated, mapped, cultured and identified with respect to their origin within the epidermis and the hair follicles. Our studies showed that 85% of the bacteria were found within the first 6 corneocyte layers and roughly 25% of the cutaneous bacterial population were localized within the hair follicles. The microbial flora of the skin between individuals is subject to considerable fluctuations. Micrococcaceae represent the biggest fraction of hair-follicle-associated bacteria. The techniques developed for this study allowed us to selectively investigate the bacterial population within the hair follicles. Our results point out the role of skin appendages as potential microbial reservoirs and the need to develop new antiseptic formulations that sufficiently penetrate into the hair follicles.
© 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel
Article / Publication Details
Copyright / Drug Dosage / DisclaimerCopyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher or, in the case of photocopying, direct payment of a specified fee to the Copyright Clearance Center.
Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug.
Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.