Cover

Sports Nutrition: More Than Just Calories - Triggers for Adaptation

69th Nestlé Nutrition Institute Workshop, Kona, Hawaii, October 2010

Editor(s): Maughan R.J. (Loughborough) 
Burke L.M. (Bruce) 
Table of Contents
Vol. 69, 2011
Section title: Water
Maughan RJ, Burke LM (eds): Sports Nutrition: More Than Just Calories – Triggers for Adaptation. Nestlé Nutr Inst Workshop Ser Nestec Ltd., Vevey/S. Karger AG., Basel, 2011, vol 69, pp 115–130
(DOI:10.1159/000329290)

Effect of Cell Hydration on Metabolism

Lang F.
Department of Physiology I, University of Tübingen, Tübingen, Germany

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Article / Publication Details

First-Page Preview
Abstract of Water

Published online: 1/18/2012
Cover Date: 2011

Number of Print Pages: 16
Number of Figures: 2
Number of Tables: 0

ISBN: 978-3-8055-9697-8 (Print)
eISBN: 978-3-8055-9698-5 (Online)

Abstract

Prerequisites for cell survival include avoidance of excessive cell volume alterations. Cell membranes are highly permeable to water, which follows osmotic gradients. Thus, cell volume constancy requires osmotic equilibrium across cell membranes. Cells accumulate osmotically active organic substances and compensate their osmolarity by lowering cytosolic Cl concentrations. Following cell shrinkage, regulatory cell volume increase is accomplished by ion uptake (activation of Na+, K+, 2Cl cotransport, Na+/H+ exchange in – parallel to Cl/HCO3 exchange and Na+ channels), by cellular accumulation of organic osmolytes (e.g. myoinositol, betaine, phosphorylcholine, taurine) as well as by proteolysis leading to generation of amino acids and glycogenolysis generating glucose phosphate. Following cell swelling, cell volume is restored by ion exit (activation of K+ channels and/ – or anion channels, KCl cotransport, parallel activation of K+/H+ exchange and Cl/HCO3 exchange), release or degradation of organic osmolytes as well as stimulation of protein synthesis and of glycogen synthesis. The activity of cell volume regulatory mechanisms is modified by hormones, transmitters and drugs, which thus influence protein and glycogen metabolism. Moreover, alterations of cell volume modify generation of oxidants and the sensitivity to oxidative stress. Deranged cell volume regulation significantly contributes to the pathophysiology of several disorders such as liver insufficiency, diabetic ketoacidosis, hypercatabolism, ischemia, and fibrosing disease.


  

Article Information

Number of Print Pages : 16

  

Publication Details

Book Serie: Nestlé Nutrition Institute Workshop Series, Vol. 69, Year 2011 ISSN: 1664-2147 (Print), eISSN: 1664-2155 (Online)

For additional information:
http://content.karger.com/ProdukteDB/produkte.asp?issn=1664-2147

Book Title: Sports Nutrition: More Than Just Calories – Triggers for Adaptation (69th Nestlé Nutrition Institute Workshop, Kona, Hawaii, October 2010)

Editor(s): Maughan RJ, Burke LM (eds)

For additional information:
http://content.karger.com/ProdukteDB/produkte.asp?issn=1664-2147&volume=69


Article / Publication Details

First-Page Preview
Abstract of Water

Published online: 1/18/2012
Cover Date: 2011

Number of Print Pages: 16
Number of Figures: 2
Number of Tables: 0

ISBN: 978-3-8055-9697-8 (Print)
eISBN: 978-3-8055-9698-5 (Online)


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Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in goverment regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug.
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