Mediators and Cytokines in Persistent Allergic Rhinitis and Nonallergic Rhinitis with Eosinophilia SyndromeGröger M.a · Klemens C.a · Wendt S.a · Becker S.a · Canis M.b · Havel M.a · Pfrogner E.a · Rasp G.c · Kramer M.F.a
Departments of Oto-Rhino-Laryngology, Head and Neck Surgery,aLudwig Maximilians University Munich, Munich, and bGeorg August University, Göttingen, Germany; cDepartment of Oto-Rhino-Laryngology, Head and Neck Surgery, Paracelsus University of Salzburg, Salzburg, Austria
Background: Patients with nonallergic rhinitis with eosinophilia syndrome (NARES) show typical symptoms of persistent allergic rhinitis (PAR). The aim of the present study was to compare nasal cytokine patterns between NARES and PAR. Methods: Nasal secretions of 31 patients suffering from NARES, 20 patients with PAR to house dust mite and 21 healthy controls were collected using the cotton wool method and analyzed for interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-2, IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, IL-7, IL-8, IL-10, IL-12, IL-13, IL-17, granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF), granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF), interferon-γ (IFN-γ), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) and macrophage inflammatory protein-1β (MIP-1β) by Bio-Plex Cytokine Assay as well as eosinophil cationic protein (ECP) and tryptase by UniCAP-FEIA. Results: NARES and PAR presented elevated levels of tryptase, while ECP was markedly increased solely in NARES compared to both the controls and PAR. Elevated levels of IL-1β, IL-17, IFN-γ, TNF-α and MCP-1 were found in NARES compared to the controls as well as PAR. MIP-1β was elevated in NARES and PAR, while IL-4, IL-6 and G-CSF showed increased levels in NARES, and IL- 5 was elevated in PAR only. Conclusions: In patients with NARES and PAR, eosinophils and mast cells appear to be the pivotal cells of inflammation, reflected by high levels of tryptase and ECP as well as IL-5 and GM-CSF as factors for eosinophil migration and survival. The elevated levels of proinflammatory cytokines in NARES may indicate the chronic, self-perpetuating process of inflammation in NARES which seems to be more pronounced than in PAR. IL-17 might be a factor for neutrophilic infiltration or be responsible for remodeling processes in NARES.
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