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Vol. 81, No. 5, 2012
Issue release date: August 2012
Section title: Innovations
Psychother Psychosom 2012;81:286–295
(DOI:10.1159/000336803)

Inflammatory and Cell-Mediated Immune Biomarkers in Myalgic Encephalomyelitis/Chronic Fatigue Syndrome and Depression: Inflammatory Markers Are Higher in Myalgic Encephalomyelitis/Chronic Fatigue Syndrome than in Depression

Maes M. · Twisk F.N.M. · Ringel K.
aMaes Clinics, TRIA, Bangkok, Thailand; bME-de-patiënten Foundation, Limmen, The Netherlands; cImmunologische Laboratorien, Aachen, Germany

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Article / Publication Details

First-Page Preview
Abstract of Innovations

Received: 7/27/2011 3:40:13 PM
Accepted: 1/20/2012
Published online: 7/20/2012

Number of Print Pages: 10
Number of Figures: 0
Number of Tables: 4

ISSN: 0033-3190 (Print)
eISSN: 1423-0348 (Online)

For additional information: http://www.karger.com/PPS

Abstract

Background: Depression is an inflammatory disorder while many authors declare myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome (ME/CFS) to be a functional disorder. The aim of the present study is to compare inflammatory and cell-mediated immune (CMI) responses between depression and ME/CFS. Methods: We measured two proinflammatory cytokines (PICs) in plasma, interleukin-1 (IL-1) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays, and serum neopterin with a radioimmunoassay in controls, ME/CFS and depressive patients. Results: Plasma PICs were significantly higher in ME/CFS than in depression and higher in both patient groups than in controls. Increased PIC levels in depression were attributable to the presence of fatigue and physio-somatic symptoms. Serum neopterin did not differ significantly between depression and ME/CFS but was higher in both patient groups than in controls. The significant positive correlations between neopterin and either IL-1 or TNF-α were significantly greater in depression than in ME/CFS. Conclusions: Since PICs cause depression-like behaviors and fatigue/malaise, we suggest that inflammation may play a role in the pathophysiology of ME/CFS and depression. Increased neopterin also seems to contribute to the pathophysiology of both disorders. This study has detected a shared ‘pathway phenotype’, i.e. disorders in inflammatory and CMI pathways, which underpins both ME/CFS and depression and, therefore, may explain the co-occurrence of both disorders. ME/CFS and depression are discriminated from each other by increased PICs in ME/CFS and differences in the immune cell communication networks.


  

Author Contacts

Prof. Dr. Michael Maes, MD, PhD
Maes Clinics, TRIA, Piyavate Hospital
998 Rimklongsamsen Road
Bangkok 10310 (Thailand)
Tel. +66 2660 2728, E-Mail dr.michaelmaes@hotmail.com

  

Article Information

Received: July 27, 2011
Accepted after revision: January 20, 2012
Published online: July 20, 2012
Number of Print Pages : 10
Number of Figures : 0, Number of Tables : 4, Number of References : 54

  

Publication Details

Psychotherapy and Psychosomatics

Vol. 81, No. 5, Year 2012 (Cover Date: August 2012)

Journal Editor: Fava G.A. (Bologna)
ISSN: 0033-3190 (Print), eISSN: 1423-0348 (Online)

For additional information: http://www.karger.com/PPS


Article / Publication Details

First-Page Preview
Abstract of Innovations

Received: 7/27/2011 3:40:13 PM
Accepted: 1/20/2012
Published online: 7/20/2012

Number of Print Pages: 10
Number of Figures: 0
Number of Tables: 4

ISSN: 0033-3190 (Print)
eISSN: 1423-0348 (Online)

For additional information: http://www.karger.com/PPS


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