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Gastric Autoimmunity in Children and Adolescents with Type 1 Diabetes: A Prospective StudyKakleas K.a · Kostaki M.b · Critselis E.a · Karayianni C.a · Giannaki M.e · Anyfantakis K.c · Haramaras I.a · Fotinou A.d · Papathanasiou A.c · Karavanaki K.a
aDiabetic Clinic, Second University Department of Pediatrics, ‘P. & A. Kyriakou’ Children’s Hospital, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens School of Medicine, bGastroenterology Clinic, Second University Department of Pediatrics, ‘P. & A. Kyriakou’ Children’s Hospital, cDepartment of Pediatric Endocrinology and dHormone Laboratory, ‘P. & A. Kyriakou’ Children’s Hospital, and eMicrobiology Department, ‘Aghia Sophia’ Children’s Hospital, Athens, Greece
Background/Aims: Type 1 diabetes (T1DM) is associated with gastric autoimmunity, which is characterized by the presence of parietal cell antibodies (APCA). We investigated gastric autoimmunity prevalence in T1DM children, its manifestations, determinants and association with thyroid gland (anti-Tg, anti-TPO) and pancreatic β-cell autoimmunity (anti-GAD) at baseline and 4 years later. Methods: The initial cohort (D1) included 97 children with T1DM. At follow-up after 4 years (D2), 84.5% of participants were evaluated. We assessed APCA, anti-Tg, anti-TPO, and anti-GAD presence, as well as symptoms of gastritis. APCA-positive patients were evaluated with gastrin, B12, ferritin levels and were submitted to gastroscopy. Results: Thyroid antibody positivity was increased among the APCA-positive patients. Four years later, among initially APCA-positive patients, 2/6 became APCA negative, while 4/6 developed high titers of APCA. On gastroscopy, 2 patients had chronic hypertrophic gastritis and one Helicobacter pylori gastritis. Conclusions: Gastric autoimmunity was associated with thyroid autoimmunity and anti-GAD persistence. After 4 years, the majority of APCA-positive patients developed high titers of APCA and mild symptoms of gastritis. Thus, patients with T1DM, and in particular those with thyroid and/or pancreatic autoimmunity, should have periodic autoantibody screening for the early diagnosis and follow-up of gastric autoimmunity.
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