Physiology and Pathophysiology of EryptosisLang F. · Lang E. · Föller M.
Department of Physiology, University of Tübingen, Germany Corresponding Author
Prof. Dr. Florian Lang
Physiologisches Institut der Universitat Tubingen
Gmelinstr. 5, 72076 Tubingen, Germany
Tel. +49 7071 29-72194, Fax -5618
Suicidal erythrocyte death (eryptosis) is characterized by cell shrinkage, cell membrane blebbing, and cell membrane phospholipid scrambling with phosphatidylserine exposure at the cell surface. Eryptotic cells adhere to the vascular wall and are rapidly cleared from circulating blood. Eryptosis is stimulated by an increase in cytosolic Ca2+ activity, ceramide, hyperosmotic shock, oxidative stress, energy depletion, hyperthermia, and a wide variety of xenobiotics and endogenous substances. Inhibitors of eryptosis include erythropoietin and nitric oxide. Enhanced eryptosis is observed in diabetes, renal insufficiency, hemolytic uremic syndrome, sepsis, mycoplasma infection, malaria, iron deficiency, sickle cell anemia, beta-thalassemia, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase-(G6PD) deficiency, hereditary spherocytosis, paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria, Wilson’s disease, myelodysplastic syndrome, and phosphate depletion. Eryptosis is further enhanced in gene-targeted mice with deficient annexin 7, cGMP-dependent protein kinase type I (cGKI), AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), anion exchanger 1 (AE1), adenomatous polyposis coli (APC), and Klotho, as well as in mouse models of sickle cell anemia and thalassemia. Decreased eryptosis is observed in mice with deficient phosphoinositide-dependent kinase 1 (PDK1), platelet activating factor (PAF) receptor, transient receptor potential channel 6 (TRPC6), janus kinase 3 (JAK3), and taurine transporter (TAUT). Eryptosis may be a useful mechanism to remove defective erythrocytes prior to hemolysis. Excessive eryptosis may, however, compromise microcirculation and lead to anemia.
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