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Incidence and Risk Factors of Bisphosphonate-Related Osteonecrosis of the Jaw in Multiple Myeloma Patients Having Undergone Autologous Stem Cell TransplantationThen C.a · Hörauf N.b · Otto S.c · Pautke C.c · von Tresckow E.d · Röhnisch T.b · Baumann P.b · Schmidmaier R.b · Bumeder I.b · Oduncu F.S.b
aDivision of Endocrinology and Diabetology, bDivision of Hematology and Oncology, Medizinische Klinik und Poliklinik IV, Klinikum der Universität München, cDepartment of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Ludwig-Maximilians University Munich, dStarnberg, Germany
Background: Bisphosphonate-related osteonecrosis of the jaw (BRONJ) is a severe complication of bisphosphonate therapy. Due to their long survival and subsequently high cumulative doses of bisphosphonates, multiple myeloma patients have the highest risk of developing BRONJ of all patients treated with bisphosphonates. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the incidence and risk factors for BRONJ in multiple myeloma patients after high-dose chemotherapy and autologous stem cell transplantation (ASCT). Patients and Methods: We retrospectively analyzed the data of 120 multiple myeloma patients after high-dose chemotherapy and ASCT treated with bisphosphonates and assessed the incidence and risk factors of BRONJ. Results: Of the 120 patients, 23 (19%) developed BRONJ. 6 patients suffered several BRONJ events, resulting in a total incidence of 23%. The risk for BRONJ was significantly higher for patients with rheumatism and recent dental manipulations. Furthermore, the number of previous bisphosphonate rotations, the duration of bisphosphonate therapy, and the type and cumulative dose of bisphosphonate used were associated with the incidence of BRONJ. Conclusion: Our study is the first to determine the risk of BRONJ in a homogeneous group of multiple myeloma patients treated with high-dose chemotherapy and ASCT.