Predictors and Timing of Recanalization in Intracranial Carotid Artery and Siphon Dissection: An Ultrasound Follow-up StudyVicenzini E. · Toscano M. · Maestrini I. · Petolicchio B. · Lenzi G.L. · Di Piero V.
Department of Neurology and Psychiatry, Stroke Unit, Sapienza University of Rome, Rome, Italy
Do you have an account?
- Rent for 48h to view
- Buy Cloud Access for unlimited viewing via different devices
- Synchronizing in the ReadCube Cloud
- Printing and saving restrictions apply
Rental: USD 8.50
Cloud: USD 20.00
Article / Publication Details
Background: Intra- and extracranial internal carotid artery dissections (ICD) are two different pathological conditions. Extracranial dissection is considered to be among the most frequent causes of stroke in the young and the segment generally reopens in 2 out of 3 cases, completely or partially, within 6 months. Intracranial ICD (IICD) is considered a rare occurrence in stroke and, accordingly, there are few systematic published data. However, it is a clinically significant condition that may cause severely disabling ischemic stroke or subarachnoid hemorrhage. In the past, sole availability of invasive imaging methods for its detection may have induced an underreporting. The aim of the study was to analyze ultrasound findings, timing and predictors of recanalization in patients with IICD. Methods: IICD acute patients admitted to our Stroke Unit were submitted to carotid sonographic seriated monitoring, daily for the 1st week after symptom onset, at day 14, at month 1 and every 3 months thereafter up to a follow-up of 4 years. Contrast carotid ultrasound was performed in patients with persistent occlusion after month 1. Results: Fourteen acute patients with IICD were enrolled. Extracranial internal carotid patency was observed in 8 patients at first ultrasound scans; all of these showed complete intracranial recanalization within the 1st week and oral anticoagulants were withdrawn after 6 months. Conversely, in 6 patients retrograde extracranial internal carotid thrombosis was immediately observed, since the first ultrasound scans. In 4 of these the occlusion persisted after 4 years while 2 of them had only a partial recanalization, with evidence at contrast ultrasound of still late remodeling processes in the extracranial thrombus up to 2 years after the first observation; for this reason, in these 2 patients anticoagulation was not discontinued, while in the 4 patients with persistent, stable, occlusion, therapy was suspended 1 year after the diagnosis. Conclusions: Identification of the site of dissection - i.e. extra- versus intracranial - is fundamental in clinical studies for outcome and prognosis evaluation. Carotid ultrasound strict surveillance is important to monitor eventual recanalization in patients with ICD, even in a late phase. Retrograde internal carotid thrombosis seems to be correlated with persistent occlusion and partial recanalization. Remodeling of thrombotic material in the internal carotid artery may, however, continue for up to 2 years. In these cases, contrast ultrasound evidence of thrombus morphological changes may support the decision to continue anticoagulation.
© 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel
Article / Publication Details
Copyright / Drug Dosage / DisclaimerCopyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher or, in the case of photocopying, direct payment of a specified fee to the Copyright Clearance Center.
Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug.
Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.