Insulin Resistance and Cardiovascular Risk Factors in 3- to 5-Year-Old Overweight or Obese ChildrenBocca G. · Ongering E.C. · Stolk R.P. · Sauer P.J.J.
aDepartment of Pediatrics, Beatrix Children's Hospital, and bDepartment of Epidemiology, University of Groningen, University Medical Centre Groningen, Groningen, The Netherlands
Background/Aims: The increasing rate of overweight and obesity is alarming. The complications of overweight and obesity at a young age are largely unknown. We aimed to assess the prevalence of insulin resistance (IR) and cardiovascular risk factors among overweight and obese children aged 3-5 years. Methods: The study population consisted of 75 children (29 overweight, 46 obese). We performed anthropometry and bioelectrical impedance analysis as an indicator of body composition. IR was determined by the updated Homeostasis Model Assessment of Insulin Resistance (HOMA2-IR). Cardiovascular risk factors were defined by the presence of increased serum triglycerides, blood pressure, and HOMA2-IR and by a decreased serum HDL cholesterol. Results: An elevated HOMA2-IR was found in 7.7% of the children. HOMA2-IR was correlated with body mass index (r = 0.63), waist circumference (r = 0.62) and percentage body fat (r = 0.58) (all p < 0.001). Cardiovascular risk factors were present in 6.9% (triglycerides) to 74.3% (hypertension) of the children. Conclusion: IR and cardiovascular risk factors are already evident in many 3- to 5-year-old overweight and obese children. IR is strongly related to body composition.
Department of Pediatrics, Beatrix Children's Hospital
University of Groningen, University Medical Centre Groningen
PO Box 30.001, NL-9700 RB Groningen (The Netherlands)
G. Bocca and E.C. Ongering contributed equally to this work.
Received: March 8, 2013
Accepted: July 24, 2013
Published online: September 18, 2013
Number of Print Pages : 6
Number of Figures : 1, Number of Tables : 3, Number of References : 31
Hormone Research in Paediatrics (From Developmental Endocrinology to Clinical Research)
Vol. 80, No. 3, Year 2013 (Cover Date: October 2013)
Journal Editor: Czernichow P. (Paris)
ISSN: 1663-2818 (Print), eISSN: 1663-2826 (Online)
For additional information: http://www.karger.com/HRP